biopsychology

  • Created by: sophiemai
  • Created on: 16-04-19 09:32
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    • neuron structure
      • transmit messages chemically and electrically. three types;
        • relay neuron; connects sensory & motor neuron
        • motor neuron; connects CNS to effector
        • sensory neuron from PNS to CNS
    • synaptic transmission
      • either exitory or inhbitory neuro transmitters depend on the reaction on the next neuron
      • axon, synaptic cleft, dendrite, pre synaptic terminal, post synaptic receptor, vescicles
    • nervous system
      • 2 sub systems; central nervous system CNS = brain and spine peripheral nervous system PNS - transmitts too and from CNS
        • PNS split into 2 further sub sections; autonomic nervous system = controlling vital functions such as breathing  & somatic nervous system = controls muscel movements
          • the ANS is also split into 2 parts; parasympathic branch & sympethetic branch
      • differences; hormones vs electrical slower vs faster widespread vs direct
        • endocrine system
          • working alongside the nervous system -
            • adernal gland - releases adreniline & nora adrenaline - flight and fight responce
            • pituitory gland- master gland controlling release from other glands
    • endocrine system
      • working alongside the nervous system -
        • adernal gland - releases adreniline & nora adrenaline - flight and fight responce
        • pituitory gland- master gland controlling release from other glands
    • localisation
      • separate parts of the brain for different tasks
        • motor area- frontal lobe- controlling volentary movement on opp part of body - damage = possible loss of fine motor skills
        • somato sensory- parital lobe - sensory skin info
        • visual are - occipital lobe - visual info from opp eye
        • auditory area - temporal lobe - speech info - damage= partial hearing loss
        • language areas; left side
          • brocas area; frontal lobe - speech production - damage = slow and non fluent speech
          • wernickles area - temporal lobe - language comp - damage = fluent but nonence
      • eval; 1- supporting CW 2- supporting PG 3- but plasticity
    • hemispheric lateralisation
      • 2 halves - split brain studies cut the corpus callusom stopping comunication between halves - couldnt name things on left no lang center on right
      • eval; 1- metholodology 2- issues with genralising 3- over stated differences
    • plasticity
      • brain can recover after damage - brain develops with learning
        • axonal sprouting, recruitment of homoglobous, reformation of blood vessels
      • eval; 1- taxi drier support 2- med students 3- brain damage support 4- not genralisable
    • ways on investigating the brain
      • fMRI
        • magnetic feild, lights up wth blood flow
        • eval; 1- live activity 2- supports localisation 3- hard to interpret 4- 5 sec delay
      • EEGs & ERPs
        • electrons on the scalp measuring responces to stimulus , erps - more specific reponce
        • eval; 1- cheaper & less complex than fMRI's 2- poor spatial resolution
      • post mortem examinations
        • brains examined after death, attempting to corolate abnormalites
          • eval; 1- proved broca & wernickles area 2- special consent necessary 3- neuronal changes after death
    • biological rhythms
      • circdian rhythms
        • 24 hours long, sleep awake cycle - controlled by SCN and pineal gland , body temp - increases before waking up and decreases at night
        • eval; 1- supporting evidence 2- supporting animals 3- blind people disagree 4- siamese disagree
      • ultradian rhythms
        • less than 24 hours, stages of sleep REM - rapid eye movement & NREM
          • 5 stages; 1-4 = NREM 5 = REM. 1-2 = light sleep 3-4 = deep sleep with growth hormone released 5= REM (dreaming)
        • eval; 1- supporting evidence 2- contradictory evidence 3- mice study support
      • infradian rhythms
        • longer than 24 hours, menstral cycle - 28 days , oestrogen & progesterone +blood, seasonal effective disorder (SAD) - yearly cycle lower energy melatonin levels difference
        • eval; 1- externl factors 2- real life applications
    • factors effecting biological rhythms
      • exogenous zeitbergers
        • external events; light &social cues
          • light, can reset SCN supressing melatonin production
          • social cues, eat sleep social activities
        • eval; 1- blind man support 2- supporting evidence
      • endogenous pacemakers
        • internal factors; superchiasmatic nucleus & pineal gland
          • SCN - main EP, gathers light info and rests dorsal SCN
          • pineal gland - releases melatonin in responce to SCN
        • eval; 1- supporting evidence 2- supporting animals 3- siamese twins disagree 4- deterministic
  • ANS & endocrince system together; becomes sypathetic, stimulating adrenal medula, releasing adrenalin, then para sympathetic state
    • adrenline effects;
      • direct effects; increased heart rate, blood flow, constrits blood flow
      • general effects; pepared for fight or flight, more oxygen
    • nervous system
      • 2 sub systems; central nervous system CNS = brain and spine peripheral nervous system PNS - transmitts too and from CNS
        • PNS split into 2 further sub sections; autonomic nervous system = controlling vital functions such as breathing  & somatic nervous system = controls muscel movements
          • the ANS is also split into 2 parts; parasympathic branch & sympethetic branch
      • differences; hormones vs electrical slower vs faster widespread vs direct

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