Biology B1

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  • Biology (B1.1)
      • carbohydrate, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water, fibre
      • carbohydrates, fats and proteins are used by the body to realease energy and build cells
      • mineral ions & vitamins are needed in small amounts for healthy functioning of the body
      • people who are malnourishedmay be : overweight, underweight, have a deficiency disease
        • energy used < energy in food ----> gain mass
        • energy used > energy in food ----> lose mass
        • a person is malnourished if their diet is not balanced
      • metabolic rate is the rate of chemical reactions in the cells of the body
        • metabolic rate varies with : the amount of exercise you do, the proportion of muscle to fat in the body, inherited factors
      • healthy diet contains the right balance of the different food you need and the right amount of energy
      • inherited factors affect health e.g CHOLETEROL LEVELS
      • pathogens are microorganisms that cause infectious disease
        • pathogens are 'germs' identifies by SEMMELWEIS. PASTEUR, LISTER
        • main types of pathogens are: bacteria & viruses
      • bacteria grow and divide every 20 minutes
        • each bacterium is exactly the same as the one it came from
          • sometimes a bacterium which is produced is different to the one it came from. this is called a MUTATION
            • MUTATIONS can result in the bacteria becoming resistant to existing antibiotics
              • by avoiding overusing antibiotic, you increase the likelihood that they will work when needed
      • an epidemic occurs when a virus or disease affects thousands of people in one country (LOCAL)
      • a pandemic is when a virus or disease spreads rapidly across the world affecting people in many countries
      • how white blood cells protect you
        • ingesting microorganisms
          • the white blood cells ingest the microorganisms and then releases enzymes to digest and destroy the pathogen
        • producing antibodies
          • white blood cells release antibodies which can destroy pathogens. the white blood cells learn how to destroy particular pathogenn and once they have learnt it you are immune to that pathogen.
        • producing antitoxins
          • white blood cells can release antitoxins which are chemicals that prevent toxins made by pathogens poisoning your body
      • viruses also make us ill by damaging the cells in which they reproduce
      • immunity  is where a person has made antibodies against a specific antigen so that the next time the antigen enters the body antibodies are made RAPIDLY and so the pathogen is destroyed before making us ill
      • pathogens make us ill by dividing rapidly and producing toxin (poisons)
      • an antibody is a Y-shaped protein produced to fight disease
      • antibiotics cannot be used to kill viral pathogen infections which live and reproduce inside cells
        • antibiotics kill pathogens of the non-resistant strain
      • people can be immunised against a disease by introducing small quantities of dead or inactive forms of the pathogen into the body through a VACCINATION
        • vaccines stimulate white blood cells to produce antibodies which destroy pathogens which makes the person immune to future infections by that microorganism.
      • Ignaz Semmelweiss
        • hungarian doctor in 1840s
        • he noticed that women in the labour ward staffed by medical students were more likely to die of 'child bed fever'
          • he noticed that the medical students were dissecting a dead bodies on the same day they were working on the labour ward
            • semmelweiss ordered the students to wash their hands in an antiseptic solution but it harmed their skin
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