Biology 2a

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  • Biology 2A
    • Cells
      • Animal Cells
        • Nucleus - contains genetic material.
        • Cytoplasm - where most chemical reactions happen. Contains enzymes.
        • Cell Membrane - holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out.
        • Mitochondria - where most of the reactions for respiration take place and respiration releases energy.
        • Ribosomes- where proteins are made.
      • Plant Cells
        • All the parts of an animal cell.
        • Cell Wall - made of cellulose and supports the cell and strengthens it.
        • Permanent Vacuole - contains cell sap.
        • Chloroplasts - where photosynthesis occurs. Contains chlorophyll.
      • Yeast Cells
        • It is a single-celled organism that contains a nucleus, a cytoplasm, a cell membrane and a cell wall.
      • Bacterial Cells
        • They are single-celled microorganisms that has a cytoplasm, a cell membrane and a cell wall but no nucleus, just genetic material.
      • Specialised Cells
        • Red Blood Cells - the concave shape gives a big surface area to carry as much oxygen as possible.
        • Sperm and Egg Cells are specialised for reproduction.
        • Guard Cells - they open and close the stomata in a leaf - when the plant has lots of water the guard cell fills with it and goes turgid, this makes the stomata open so gases can be exchanged for photosynthesis.
        • Palisade Leaf Cells - packed with chloroplasts, near to the light at the top and tall shape for absorbing CO2 down the side.
    • Diffusion
      • "The spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration."
      • The bigger the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion.
    • Cell Organisation
      • Cells
        • Tissues - a group of the same type of cells.
          • Organ - a group of different types of cells/tissues.
            • Organ System - a group of organs each with a specific job, working together for one common function.
              • Organism - a group of organ systems, a living thing.
    • Photosynthesis
      • Carbon Dioxide + Water ----> Glucose + Oxygen.
      • Plant Structure
        • Mesophyll Tissue - this is where most of the photosynthesis in a plant occurs.
        • Epidermal Tissue - this covers the whole plant.
        • Xylem and Phloem - they transport things like water, mineral ions and sucrose around the plant.
      • Rate of Photosynthesis
        • Limiting Factors
          • Light - at night light becomes the limiting factor.
          • Temperature - in winter the limiting factor is often the temperature.
          • Carbon Dioxide - if it's warm enough and bright enough CO2 usually becomes the limiting factor.
        • You can artificially create the ideal conditions.
          • Temperature - greenhouse.
          • Light - artificial light at night.
          • Carbon Dioxide - use a paraffin heater because CO2 is a by-product.
      • How Plants Use Glucose
        • For respiration.
        • Converted into cellulose to make cell walls.
        • Stored as starch.
        • It is combined with nitrate ions to make amino acids/proteins.
        • It is stored into lipids (fats and oils) for storing in seeds.
    • Distribution of Organisms
      • You can place a quadrat on the ground at a random point.
      • Where an organism is found is affected by environmental factors:
        • Temperature.
        • Availability of water.
        • Availability of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
        • Availability of nutrients.
        • Availability of light.
      • Use can use transects to measure the distribution of organisms. A transect could be a tape measure etc.


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