cells, tissues and organs

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  • Cells, Tissues and Organs
    • Animal & Plant Cells
      • most human cells and animal cells contain:
        • nucleus- controls cells activities
        • cytoplasm- where chemical reactions take place
        • cell membrane- controls movement of materials in and out of cell
        • mitochondria- energy is released here during aerobic respiration
        • Ribosomes- where protein synthesis takes place
      • Plant cells also have:
        • a rigid cell wall made of cellulose for support
        • chloroplasts- contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis (it absorbs energy)
        • permanent vacuole- contains cell sap
    • Bacteria & Yeast
      • bacteria is microscopic. contains cell membrane and a cell wall surrounding cytoplasm
        • cytoplasm is the genetic material because there is no nucleus
      • bacteria multiples to form bacterial colonies
      • Yeast is single celled organism
        • contains: nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane surrounded by cells wall
    • Specialised cells
      • cells with many mitochondria need a lot of energy (muscle/sperm cell)
      • cells with many ribosomes makes a lot of protein (gland cells which produce enzymes)
      • cells with tail are able to move (sperm cells)
      • receptor cells are able to detect stimuli (cone cells in eyes are light sensitive)
      • neurons carry impulses from receptors to CNS
      • plant cells with many chloroplasts will be photosynthesising (mesophyll cells of a leaf)
      • root hair cells increase the surface area to absorb water/minerals efficiently
    • Diffusion
      • spreading out of the particles of a gas or any substance in solution
      • net movement into or out of cells depends on the concentration of the particles
        • net (overall) movement from an area of high concentration and lower concentration
          • difference in concentration is called the concentration gradient
            • the larger the difference in concentration, the faster the rate of diffusion
      • examples: the diffusion of oxygen into the cells of the body from the bloodstream (respiration)
        • carbon dioxide into actively photosynthesising plant cells
          • simple sugars and amino acids from the gut through cell membranes
    • Tissues and Organs
      • during the development of multicellular organisms the cells differentiate
        • tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function
          • Animal tissues include:
            • muscle tissue: contract to bring movement
            • glandular tissue: produce enzymes and hormones etc
            • epithelial tissue: covers some parts of the body
          • Plant tissues include:
            • epidermal tissue: covers the plant
            • mesophyll: photosynthesise
            • xylem and phloem: transports substances around the plant
      • the stomach is an organ made of:
        • muscular tissue: churn contents
        • glandular tissue: produces digestive juices
        • epithelial tissue: to cover the stomach
      • leaf, stem and root are all plant organs
      • the digestive system changes food from insoluble into soluble molecules so they can be absorbed into the blood
        • includes: pancreas & salivary glands (produces digestive juices), stomach (digestion occurs), liver (produces bile), small intestine (absorption of soluble foods occur), large intestine (where water is absorbed to produce faeces)


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