Biology 1

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  • Keeping healthy
    • diet and exercise
      • A balanced diet contains to correct amount of food
        • Water-
          • soup, fruit
          • allows Chemical reactions to take place
        • Fibre
          • cereal, brown bread
          • -helps digestion by cleaning intestins
        • Carbs-
          • bread, cereals, pasta
          • Energy
        • Proteins-
          • meats, nuts, dairy
          • Growth + repair of cells
        • Fats-
          • Chocolate, dairy, crisps
          • store of energy
        • Vitamins and minerals
          • fruit and veg
          • aid bodily functions
      • Different people = different amounts of energy
        • more exercise = more food = more energy
      • Metabolic rate
        • Rate of chemical reactions in cells
        • varies for different people
    • Weight problems
      • more energy than needed = fat
      • Obesity = extremely larger than what is proper
      • BMI= body mass index
        • measures body mass
        • Tests for obesity/weight problems
    • Inherited factors
      • Metabolic rate
      • Cholesterol
        • HDL=high density lipoprotien= good
          • carried towards liver
        • LDL=low density lipoprotien = bad
          • carried towards heart
            • heart disease
              • lowered by statins
      • heart disease
        • lowered by statins
    • Pathogens and disease
      • Pathogens
        • micro-organisms that cause disease
        • e.g. bacteria + viruses
      • reduce of spreading
        • washing hands
          • Ignaz Semmelweis
            • in hospitols
    • Vacinations
      • contains dead/inactive cells
        • these are recognised and attacked
      • controls infection
      • prevents epidemic
      • bad reactions
      • don't always work
    • drugs
      • painkillers
        • relieve pain/reduces symptoms
      • antibiotics
        • kills/prevents growth of bacteria
      • don't destroy viruses
      • bacteria somtimes mutate and become resistant
    • defence mechanisms
      • skin
      • mucus
        • covers linings of lungs and tubes
        • traps pathogens
      • clotting of the blood
      • white blood cells
        • ingesting microorganisms
        • producing antibodies
          • unique
        • producing antitoxins
    • drugs and disease
      • antibiotics
        • kill bacteria in body
        • do not destroy viruses
          • hard to kill virus without harming cells
      • Penicilin
        • Discovered by Alexander Fleming
        • discovered in 1928
      • paracetamol
        • relieves symptoms
    • Growing bacteria
      • Uncontaminated culture of microorganisms can be grown using sterilised peri dishes and agar
      • sterilise inoculating loop before use and seal the lid
        • left at 25 degrees for a few days
      • uncontaminated cultures are needed to investigate the effect of hceicals e.g. disinfectants
      • kept at 25 degrees

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