biological molecules

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  • Biological Molecules
    • WATER
      • Uses
        • Temperature control
        • transports substances e.g. glucose and oxygen
        • its a reactant for a lot of important chemical reactions
        • its a solvent so substances can dissolve in it
      • water molecules are held together by covalent bonds between 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen
      • has high specific heat capacity because of hydrogen bonds
        • this is useful to living organisms because it stops rapid temperature changes
      • has high latent heat of evaporation because of hydrogen bonds
        • this is good for living organisms as water is god for cooling things down
      • waters polarity makes it cohesive
        • this is good as it helps water to flow and helps for transportation of substances
    • PROTEINS
      • MADE OF LONG CHAINS OF AMINO ACIDS
        • 2 amino acid joined together form a DIPEPTIDE
        • 2 or more amino acids joined together forms a POLYPEPTIDE
        • all amino acids have a carboxyl group -COOH and a amino group -NH2
        • amino acids are joined together by PEPTIDE BONDS (water is released)
      • proteins have 4 structural levels
        • PRIMARY STRUCTURE
          • sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
            • held together by PEPTIDE BONDS
        • SECONDARY STRUCTURE
          • chain coils into alpha helix or folded into beta pleated sheet
            • caused by HYDROGEN BONDING
        • TERTIARY STRUCTURE
          • coiled or folded chain is coiled and folded further
            • IONIC DISULFIDE HYDRPHOBIC HYDROPHILIC HYDROGEN BONDS
        • QUATERNARY STRUCTURE
          • proteins can be made my several different polypeptide chains
            • this 4th structure is the way in which polypeptide chains are assembled
            • bonds depend on the type of tertiary structure
    • CARBOHY- DRATES
      • made from MONO- SACCHARIDES
        • GLUCOSE is a monosaccharide with 2 types, alpha and beta
          • Difference between them is the position of the H and OH
          • glucose is a main energy source its structure makes it soluble
        • 2 monosaccharides form DISACCHARIDES
        • 2 or more Monosaccharides form a polysaccharide
        • monosaccharides join together by GLYCOSIDIC BONDS
      • there are 3 main polysaccharides:
        • STARCH
          • its insoluble so water doesn't enter
          • AMYLOSE
            • long unbranched chain of alpha glucose coiled structure
          • AMYLOPECTIN
            • long branched chain of beta glucose
          • energy storage in plants
    • LIPIDS
      • TRIGLYCERIDES
        • 1 molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acids
        • mainly storage molecules and insoluble
      • PHOSPHOLIPIDS
        • 1 phosphate group, 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
        • they make up the bilayer of cell membrane
        • hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails
      • CHOLESTEROL
        • 1 hydroxyl group, hydrocarbon rings and 1 hydrocarbon tail
        • cholesterol can fit between phospholipid in bilayer
        • they allow membrane to become more rigid and less fluid
  • energy storage in plants

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