Biological Rhythms

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  • Biological Rhythms
    • Types of rhythm
      • Circadian
        • Cyclical variations over 24 hours
          • Sleep-Wake cycle
      • Infradian
        • Over 24 hours
          • Phases of the moon
      • Ultradian
        • Under 24 hours
          • Sleep cycle
    • Functions of Sleep
      • Evolutionary Theory
        • Protection
          • Don't get killed
          • Sheep sleep short
          • Lions sleep long
          • Alison + Cicchetti - sleep in 39 species, predator sleep long, prey sleep short
          • Meddis - sleeps keep prey out of danger at times when advantageous activities impossible
        • Conservation
          • Save time and energy
          • Hibernation
            • Webb - hibernation is to conserve time and energy when food supplies are low
          • Migration
            • again when food sources are low
      • Restoration Theory
        • Oswald
        • REM
          • Brain- neuro-chemicals replaced, regenerated from protein synth
        • NREM
          • Body - getting rid of chemical waste, repairing cells, protein synth
            • dependent on growth hormone- released after first burst of delta waves
            • Shapiro - runner spend longer in NREM after marathon
        • Evaluation bad - protein synth all day , brain active during REM, over simplistic
        • Sterne+ Morgan - people who suffer brain injury spend more time in REM
    • Sleep cycle
      • Cycles
        • 1) 1,2,3,4,3,2, REM
          • 2) 2,3,4,REM
            • 3, 4 + 5) 2,REM
      • Measuring sleep
        • EEG- brain waves
        • EOG- eye activity
        • EMG- muscle tension activity near chin
      • Types of sleep
        • NREM - 4 stages
          • Stages
            • 0- relaxation stage
              • 1- theta waves
                • 2- sleep spindles + k complexes
                  • 3- delta waves 50% of time
        • REM - brain more active, faster waves, rapid eye movement
          • paradoxical sleep - active brain, paralyed muscles
    • Sleep and age
      • Newborn
        • 50% REM, 16-18 hours sleep
      • Baby
        • 13-14 hours sleep - 45-60 minute cycle
      • Toddler
        • once daytime nap
      • Child
        • 5-10=2 y/o - 70 min cycle, 9-10 hours sleep, REM 25%
      • Teen
        • less regular pattern due to puberty
      • Young Adult
        • 53% 18-25 y/o suffer daytime sleepiness
      • Middle Age
        • Early middle age - require as much as teens but are distracted, work, babies
        • 30-45 y/o- shallower, shorter sleep, greater fatigue more caffiene + alcohol intake
      • Old Age
        • 45-60 want to go to bed earlier, 7 hours sleep, no stage 4 sleep
        • 60+ - frequent interruptions, microarousals lasting 3 seconds, 200-1000 per night
    • Sleep disorders
      • Narcolepsy
        • symptoms- extreme daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis
        • Bio causes- gene defect responsible for OREXIN
          • HLA-DQB1 *06:02
          • Sakuri- levels of orexin are reduced in people with narcolepsy
          • Wickens - injecting orexin into areas of brain increses REM in sleep
          • Thannickal, Moore + Niehuis- orexin producing cells in hypothalamous are educed in narcoleptics
      • Sleep Walking - Somnmbulism
        • walking, peeing, moving stuff in sleep
        • Bassetti - HLA DQB1*05 gene focus
          • 16 genetically tested, 50% had the HLA DQB1*05
      • Insomnia
        • Primary - ilness in itself, idiopathic, onset in childhood
          • Morin- 67 ppts, 40 w/, 27 w/o
            • insomniacs rated daily stressors + life events hight than good sleepers
              • nature + nurture
        • Secondary- as a result of poor health, physically or mentally
          • Monti- depression suffers improved sleep after taing anti-depressants
          • Treatments - improved sleep routine, reduce stress, CBT
        • PPP- Predisposing- genetic component, Precipitating- envoronmental factor, Perpetuating- learned association
        • Sleep hygiene- reducing alcohol+ caffeine, quieter + darker sleep env. increased exercise
        • Sleep state misconception- subjective vs objective
          • 10 night in lab, reported mean time to fall asleep- 90, actual 15. Total sleep time reported 4 hours, actual 6.5 hours
    • Disruptions of sleep
      • Jet Lag
        • crossing time zones- W>E worst, body ready for sleep but local zeitgebers counter this
        • phase delay- putting off sleep, phase advance- forcing self to sleep
        • Scwartz- major league baseball teams, teams travelling W>E had much fewer wins
          • melatinin secretion remains in parttern of home country
        • Cho- performance deficits in jet lagged crew
      • Shirt Work
        • effects- sleepiness, fatugie, digestion issues, poor concentration
        • Workplace - reduced prodctivity, increased number accident
          • e.g. chernobyl, three mile island
        • Czeisler - chemicl plant Utah, high rate health problems
          • due to body entering state of internal desync (Aschoff)
          • practical application, phase delay system introduced, improved output and satisfaction of workers
        • Hawkins- 11 nurses- performance improved after sccessive nights on shift
      • Seasonal Affective Disorder
        • Colin Blakemoore - case study of Pat Moore, experienced unipolar depression for years
          • Humans are sensitive to light
        • Booker + Hellekson - Alaska, (% SAD, Finland high suicide rate in winter
    • Endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers
      • Endogenous - internal clocks e.g. heart pacemaker
      • Richter - rats daily activity levels - genetically inherited mechanisms
        • these cycles are influenced by external world
      • Exogenous zeitgebers - external cues e.g. light levels
      • Morgan - supra-chiasmatic nucleus of hamsters
        • those transplanted from mutant (shorter cycles) adapted behvious of mutant
      • Abraham - injected melatonin into sparrows- induces sleep
      • Michel Siffre- pent 7 months underground (no exog)
        • behaviour remained cyclical but 25-32 hr days
      • Folkard - case study: Kate Aldcroft - 25 day isolation
        • 30 hr rhyhm
      • Miles - young male  blind from birth - had a 24.9 hr circadian rhythm
      • Stephen + Zucker - damaged SCN and bio rhythms
        • rats 12hr light, 12hr dark
          • damaged SCN = abnormal circadican rhythms
      • Timonen - conceptions increased in lightter months of year
        • levels of light may have an influence on pituitary gland
      • Reingberg- 600 girls from northern Germany
        • menarche more likely to occur in winter + reached earlier by blind girls

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