Biological Molecules

View mindmap
  • Biological Molecules
    • Monosaccharides
      • Sweet tasting
      • Soluble
      • (CH2O)n
      • n can be any number between 3 and 7
      • Glucose
        • Glucose has 2 Isomers - Alpha and Beta
          • Alpha glucose has an OH on the bottom
          • Beta glucose has an OH on the top
    • Disaccharides
      • Glucose + Glucose = Maltose
    • Polysaccharide
      • Many monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic bond
      • Large
      • Insoluble
    • Starch
      • Small grains
      • Seeds and tubers
      • Energy source
      • Alpha Glucose
      • Insoluble so it can't be draw in into cells by osmosis
      • Spiraled so its compact
    • Glycogen
      • Animals and bacteria
      • Insoluble so it can't be drawn into cells by osmosis
      • Alpha glucose
      • Compact
    • Cellulose
      • Beta glucose
      • Straight, unbranched chains
      • Chains run parallel to each other and are joined with H bonds
        • H bonds add stregnth
      • In cell walls
    • Lipids
      • Roles
        • Energy Sources -  When oxidised, it produces the same amount of energy as the same mass of carbohydrates
        • Waterproof - Lipids are insoluble in water
        • Insulation - Fats help to contain body heat
        • Protection- Fat is stored around delicate organs
      • Triglycerides
        • 3 fatty acids and a glycerol
        • Each fatty acid forms an ester bond
        • A saturated fatty acid has no double bonds
        • An unsaturated fatty acid has double bonds
      • Phospholipids
        • 2 fatty acids,  phosphate and a glycerol
        • Hydrophilic - Water loving
        • Hydrophobic - Water hating
    • Proteins
      • Each has 4 chemical groups attached
        • Amino - NH2
        • Carboxyl - COOH
        • Hydrogen - H
        • R chain
      • Joined by peptide bonds
      • Bonds broken by hydrolysis
      • Primary Structure
        • Joined by polymerisation
        • Determines shape and function of amino acid
      • Secondary Structure
        • Polypeptide chain is twisted into a 3D shape
      • Tertiary Structure
        • Disulphide bridges
        • Ionic bonds
        • Hydrogen bonds
      • Quaternary Structure
        • There may also be non-protein groups with the molecules
    • Enzymes
      • When colliding with substrates, a number of conditions need to be met
        • Sufficient energy
        • Free energy of the products must be less than that of the substrates
        • Activation energy
      • Globular Protein
      • Substrate fits into the depression making an enzyme substrate complex
      • 3D
      • Increased temperature, increased collisions, faster rate of reaction
      • pH alters the charges on the amino acids that make up the active sites of the enzymes
      • Increased enzyme concentration, faster rate of reaction until all enzymes are used up
      • Inhibitors
        • Competitive -attaches to active site
        • Non-competitive- attactches to ezyme and changes active sites shape
    • Nucleic Acids
      • A nucleotide has a pentose sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
      • Bond formed between nucleotides are called phosphodiester bonds
      • RNA
        • Polymer made up of nucloetides
        • Pentose sugar is always a ribose
        • Bases - Cytosine, Guanine, Adenine and Uracil
      • DNA Structure
        • Pentose sugar is always deoxyribose
        • Joined by H bonds
        • Cytosine + Guanine
          • 2 H bonds
        • Thymine + Adenine
          • 3 H bonds
      • Replication of DNA
        • Unzipped by DNA Helicase
        • Free nucleotides added by DNA Polymerase
      • ATP
        • Immediate energy
        • A few seconds worth
        • Continuously made in mitochondria
        • Used for: metabolic processes, energy, activation of molecules, secretion and active transport
      • Water
        • Water redily dissolves gasses, wastes (ammonia, urea), inorganic ions and enzymes
        • Evaporation - to cool organisms
        • Not easily compressed
        • Transparent - for photosynthesis

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Biological molecules resources »