Biological Molecules 

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  • Biological Molecules
    • Polymerisation
      • Monomers linked together to form long chains
      • Monomers usually based on carbon
      • Polypeptides formed by linking together amino acids
    • Condensation/Hydrolysis
      • Reactions that produce water: Condensation
      • Adding water to break down a polymer: Hydrolysis
    • Test for reducing sugars
      • Add 2cm3 food sample to a test tube.
      • Add 2cm3 Benedict's reagent.
      • Heat mixture in water bath for 5 minutes.
      • Colour change from blue- orange/brown
    • Test for non-reducing sugars
      • Reducing sugars test. Solution stays blue: reducing sugar nor present
      • Add 2cm3 food sample to 2cm3 dilute HCl. Place in heated water bath for 5 mins.
      • Slowly add sodium hydrogencarbonate solution. Test with pH paper to ensure solution is alkaline
      • Repeat Benedict's test. Colour change indicates non-reducing sugar has been hydrolysed into reducing sugars.
    • Test for starch
      • Place 2cm3 sample into test tube
      • Add two drops of iodine solution and shake
      • Blue-black colouration indicates presence of starch
    • Disaccharides
      • Made in a condensation reaction
      • Joined by a glycosidic bond
      • Two alpha glucose monosaccharides form a maltose disaccharide.


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