Eating behaviours

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  • Created by: izzy89
  • Created on: 28-11-15 23:17
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  • Homeostasis/Dual centre theory
    • Hypothalamus
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  • Untitled
  • Biological explanations
    • Eating behaviours
      • Psychological explanations
        • Boundary model (Herman & Polivys)/ Restraint theory (Herman & Mack)
          • We all have a biological boundary for food intake.
            • Below the lower point, we feel hugry
            • Above the upper point we feel bloated.
            • Between these points physiological factors determine the precise amount of food we eat.
            • Dieters tend to have a lower point of hunger and a higher level of satiety.
            • Dieters set a self-imposed desired intake somewhere between the lower and upper points.
              • Leads to a dishinhibtion effect, where the dieter passes their satiety level.
          • Dieters set a cognitive boundary on what they eat.
          • Support
            • Herman & Mack
              • 45 female student participants
              • Preload taste test paradigm
              • Independent design
              • 1. no preload 2. preload= one milkshake 3. preload= two milkshakes
              • All three groups given 3 tubs of ice-cream.
                • Participants divided into low and high restraint groups based on questionnaires completed before the experiment.
                  • Found those i high restraint groups who had 2 milkshakes, had the most ice-cream after.
        • Theory of ironic process (Cognitive)
          • Wegner
            • The dieter tries to repress thoughts of forbidden foods.
              • They become preoccupied with the forbidden food and it becomes more attractive.
                • This denial often backfires.
          • Support
            • Wegner
              • Asked participants to not think about a white bear, but to ring a bell if they did.
              • Other participants were told to think about the white bear and to ring the bell when they did.
                • Those told not to think about the white bear thought about it more.
            • Wardle & Beadle
              • 27 obese women were randomly assigned to a diet group, an exercise group and a control group.
              • All took part in a laboratory procedure to asses their food intake at weeks 4 and 6.
                • Results indicated that participants in the diet group ate more than the other groups.
        • Redden: detail- if you focus on the detail of food it will make it more appealing and keep you committed in the long=term to the regime.
          • 135 participants each given 22 jelly beans.
            • Group 1= no detail given Group 2= more detail given.
              • Participants got bored faster if they saw little information and enjoyed the task more if given more specific info.
    • Homeostasis/Dual centre theory (Neural mechanisms)
      • Lateral Hypothalamus
        • Feeding centre (stimulates feeding)
          • Decrease in leptin in adipocytes and in the blood stream.
          • Decrease in blood glucose.
          • Increase in ghrelin secreted from the stomach.
      • Ventromedial Hypothalamus
        • Satiety centre (inhibits feeding)
          • Increase in blood glucose.
          • Increase in leptin in adipocytes and in the blood stream.
          • Decrease in ghrelin secreted from the stomach.
      • Support
        • Hetherington & Ranson
          • Rat's VMH lesioned.
          • Developed over-eating and obesity.
        • Cummings et al
          • Monitored P's ghrelin levels every 5 mins.
            • Self assessed hunger every 30 mins.
            • 5 out of 6 P's had a significant correlation between ghrelin levels and hunger.
        • Licino found Turkish family with leptin deficiency
          • Injected them with leptin and found they lost at least half of their body weight.
      • Oppose
        • Gold
          • Lesioned rats VMH, did not find any over-eating.
            • When the whole hypothalamus was lesioned= over-eating.
        • Weinsner suggests that overweight people actually have increased leptin.
    • Evolutionary
      • EEA: Environment of Evolutionary  Adaption, refers to the African Savannah.
        • Used to be herbivore.
          • Meat= high protein+ less effort for more= adaptive.
        • Sweet food= high in energy, good for hunting and getting around.
      • Natural selection
        • Current environment
          • Evolutionary attraction to sweet foods= bad for our environment.
            • Adaption to meat is not necessary now, we are able to avoid it if that is our choice. It does not give someone a higher or lower status.
          • Adaptive problems our ancestors face have shaped our food preferences.
        • Hunters that got the meat would reap the benefits= wife+ high status.
      • Taste aversion
        • If a person is given a small dose of something that makes them feel ill, they will remember this.
          • Aversion to this taste becomes a learned behaviour.
            • It also becomes an adaptive behaviour as humans bodies develop to recognise these tastes and avoid them.
      • Support
        • Gibson & Wardle
          • Found in 4/5 year olds a preference for bananas and potatoes which would have been adaptive in our EEA.
        • Desor et al
          • Found newborn babies demonstrate innate preference for sweet tasting and rejection of bitter tasting, shown by facial expressions.
        • Buss
          • In modern hunter-gatherer societies men gained status, power and a mate if they catch more meat.
        • Logue
          • The human tongue seems to have specific receptors for detecting sweetness, suggests an importance of sweet foods.
          • Bell et al found that when Eskimos were given sweet foods they readily accepted them, suggests underlying preference for sweet foods.
        • Bernstein
          • Gave 3 groups of children ice-cream+ chemotherapy, ice-cream and chemotherapy.
            • later given a choice to eat the ice cream or not. Found that those that had it before without the treatment were more likely to have it.
              • Also found that those that associated the ice-cream with chemotherapy were the least likely to want it again.
      • Oppose
        • Dunn
          • Argues that we didn't evolve to eat meat, it just happened upon us. Compared to other carnivores, we prefer meat in a form that does not resemble the original animal.

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