Bio 2B- part 1

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  • Bio 2B- part 1
    • Enzymes=catalyst
      • increases speed of a reaction without being changed or used up
        • need: right temp and ph
      • enzymes are proteins-all proteins made up of chains of amino acids
    • Digestive enzymes: break down big molecules into smaller ones(pass through walls)
      • Amylase: salivary/pancreas/small intestine
        • Protease: stomach/p/si
          • Lipase:pancreas/small I
          • BILE:  produced in live-stored:gall blader:released into small i.
            • Bile:alkaline-neutralises stomach acid-emulsifies fats-giving it LSA for lipase to work-digestion is faster.
    • Respiration: releasing energy from glucose which goes in every cell
      • AEROBIC:w/ oxygen
        • goes on all the time/inside mitochondria
        • releases energy: to build up larger molecules from smaller.     Allow muscle to contract.          keep body temp steady.   to build up nutrients needed
      • ANAEROBIC: no oxygen
        • glucose-energy+lactic acid
          • incomplete breakdown of glucose-lactic builds up in muscles-painful-muscle fatigue-doesnt release much energy
            • Leads to OXYGEN DEBT: keep breathing hard to get more oxygen into blood to repay.
              • Bloods flows to remove lactic by OXIDISING it to CO2+water
    • Enzymes and digestion
      • Salivary gland Stomach       Liver             Pancreas         Small Intestine Large intestine
    • Exercise
      • GLYCOGEN(glucose stored)- when exercising glucose is used rapidly and some stored glycogen is converted to provide more energy
      • This increase the heart/pulse/breathing rate
      • muscle cells use oxygen to release energy from glucose-to contract muscles. Increase in muscle activity= more required-more CO2 needs to be removed-blood flows faster:
    • Uses of enzymes
      • ADV: specific/low temp-low cost-saves energy/work for a long time/biodegradable-less envirn pollution
        • DIS: allergic/denature by small increase in temp/expensive to produce/if contaminated=affects reaction
      • FOOD: 'pre-digested'-easier to digest
        • carbohydrate-figesting enzyme= turn starch syrup to sugar syrup
      • Glucose syrup turned into Fructose(sweeter so need less of it) using ISOMERASE enzyme.
      • BIOLOGICAL DETERGENTS: protein+fat digesting-break animal+plant matter=ideal for removings stains-effective at LOW temp.
  • Glucose+oxygen-Co2+water+energy
  • enzymes have a unique shape-they catalyse only one reaction
  • if temp too high/pH: bond holding enzyme break-denatured (37 best)
    • Optimum ph is usually 7 apart from pepsin(in stomach ph2)


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