Behaviourism

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  • Behaviorism
    • A way of explaining behaviour in terms of what is observable and in terms of learning
    • Classical Conditioning
    • Operant Conditioning
      • Skinner suggested that learning is an active process whereby humans and animals operate on their environment.
      • Positive reinforcement- receiving a reward when performing a behaviour
      • Negative Reinforcement- when an animal or human avoids something unpleasant
      • Punishment- an unpleasant consequence of behaviour
    • Strengths
      • The use of highly controlled lab experiment makes the research easily replicated- high internal validity.
      • Real life applications (e.g., therapy)
    • Limitations
      • Low ecological validity- e.g. Rats during Skinner's experiment weren't behaving normally.
      • Reductionist
      • Determinist

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