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  • Before
    • Tsunamis
      • Mitigating Impact
        • Japan, March 2011
          • Sea walls and floodgates built
            • Proved to be ineffective
      • Risk Assessment
        • Will only occur: after a large submarine earthquake, on the coast
          • 3b live on the coast worldwide
        • After the earthquake, the speed, path and height of the tsunami can be predicted
      • Monitoring
        • Japan, March 2011
          • In 2007, Japan's meteorological agency launched an earthquake early warning system which could also be used to warn against tsunamis
        • 2004 Tsunami, Koh Phi Phi Don Island in Thailand
          • DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Recording of Tsunamis): most effective predicting method, measures changes in sea-bed pressure
    • Earthquakes
      • Mitigating Impact
        • Japan, March 2011
          • Very tight building regulations, eg. skyscrapers have to have either base isolation or mass dampers.
            • Proved to be effective: Tokyo had not collapsed buildings
          • Everyone in Japan had an earthquake kit
        • China, May 2008
          • Buildings hadn't been built according to the 1976 earthquake-building code and many were built before it
        • Chile, 2010
          • Very strict and advanced building regulations (better than many more developed countries, praised by the UN in 2011 with in their World Risk Index)
            • Resulted in the 8.2 magnitude quake only cuaseing six deaths.
      • Monitoring
        • In 2007, Japan's meteorological agency launched an earthquake early warning system
    • Volcanoes
      • Monitoring
        • Sourfiere Hills, Montserrat
          • Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) set up
            • Eg. a GPS network detects ground deformation, caused by the build up of magma chambers, with the accuracy of millimeters
          • Hazard level management system (zoning), which divides the south of the island into five zones.
      • Mitigating imoact
        • Lava flow from Etna, 1991-1993
          • Land-use planning measures
          • Hazard zoning
        • Mount Merappi, 2010
          • Hazard zoning, eg. forbidden zone, second danger zones which follow the canals of rivers.
    • Landslides
      • Risk Assessment
        • Caused by earthquakes
        • Steep landscapes are vulnerable
        • Areas subjected to heavy, intense rainfall are vulnerable
    • Debris Flows
      • Risk Assessment
        • Caused by heavy rainfall on widespread, loose landslide debris in the aftermath of a large earthquake


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