B5 part 3

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  • B5 part 3
    • a dialysis machine is used for someone who has kidney failure it cleans the blood of waste urea and adds salts back into the body
    • regulating urine concentration
      • after drinking a large quantity of water the qaunity of urine produced increases and the urine concentration decreases
      • during hard exsize or a hot day the body produces more sweat as to cool down so the quantity of urine decreases but the concentration of urine increases
        • the pituitary gland produces the hormone ADH wich controls the concentration of the urea by increasing the permeability of kidney tubules so that more water is reabsorbed
          • after drinking a large quantity of water the qaunity of urine produced increases and the urine concentration decreases
          • using negative feedback mecnisums to control Anti-diuretic hormone or ADH
      • growth and repair
        • having a balanced diet containing these substances can increase growth calcium phosphorus vitamin d and proteins
        • extremes in height are usually caused by hormone imbalance or by genes
        • different parts of the foetus develop at different rates in the body
        • a babys length mass and haed size are regulay monterd to give an early warning of any growth different from normal
        • the human growth hormone stimulates growth especially in long bones
        • human life expectancy has increased due to fewer deaths from industrial diseases better housing heather diet and lifestyle advances in Morden medicine
        • more people living longer has many personal conqunces such as longer retirement but also bigger burden on pension funds and on the NHS
        • organ donation
          • a living person can donate blood bone marrow and a kidney
          • organ donations from a dead person must meet certain criteria such as approval from he donor and their family and they must be brain dead
          • these transplants are at risks of being rejected by the recipients body so they have to take immune suppressants but this can lead to them having a weaker immune system
          • Untitled
          • you can join the donor register at the age of 18 but some countryes have the pot out system which assumes unless you say no your organs can be used some people object against this saying this is against human rights
          • survival rates can be shown by interpreting data
    • CO2 concentration
      • the body ids more sensitive to the level of carbon dioxide than that of oxygen an increases in carbon dioxide is detected by receptors in the carotid artery then the brain increases the rate of breathing to get rid of the CO2
    • life goes on
      • four hormones control the menstrual cycle
        • follicle stimulating hormone
          • realises from the pirtuarty gland from the brain
            • luteinising hormone
              • four hormones control the menstrual cycle
                • follicle stimulating hormone
                  • realises from the pirtuarty gland from the brain
                    • luteinising hormone
                      • negative feedback mecinsums control the amount of sex hormones in the menstrual cycle
                        • oestrogen
                          • fertilisation dose not occur if levels of these hormones decrease
                            • progesterone
                              • negative feedback mecinsums control the amount of sex hormones in the menstrual cycle
                                • oestrogen
                                  • fertilisation dose not occur if levels of these hormones decrease
                                    • progesterone
                                      • when these hormone levels are low menstruation occurs
                              • when these hormone levels are low menstruation occurs
                  • a message is sent to the hypothalamus that hormones levels are agin low this starts the cycle agin
          • a message is sent to the hypothalamus that hormones levels are agin low this starts the cycle agin
        • fertility In humans
          • fertility in humans can be controlled by the use of sex hormones the contraceptive pill prevents ovulation whereas fertlity drugs help insure ovulation
          • these hormones prevent  ovulation by making the body think it is pregnant this stop FHS realses eggs in the ovary are therefore not stimulated
        • infertility treatments
          • IVF, using FHS artificial insemination, egg donation, surrogacy and an ovary transplant
          • all fertility treatments increase the chance of successful  fertilisation and pregnancy this will be important for people who really want a family however not all people agree with his it is very expensive for the individuals and the NHS
        • foetal screening
          • a developing foetus can be screened yo check for abnormality's this can be done by
            • chromosome analysis: using a blood test to test cells for any chromosome abnormalities
          • using tequnices like this can rise ethical issus such as wheater it is right to interfeare with the normal prosses and wheatehr an unborn foetus has a right to life these also carry a small risk of expulsion of the foetus

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