B2- Keeping Healthy

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  • B2- Keeping Healthy
    • Micro-organisms
      • Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi
        • Viruses- flu, polio, common cold, AIDs and measles
        • Bacteria- Tonsillitis, tuberculosis, plague, cystis
          • Split quickly in warm, moist environment with nutrients
        • Fungi- Athletes foot, thrush, ringworm
      • Reproduce quickly
      • Cause symptoms
        • By damaging the cells or making poison (toxins)
      • Have medicines to cure Bacteria and fungi not viruses
        • Take medicines to make us feel better until our bodies get rid of the viruses
      • Very small: Viruses smallest, Fungus biggest
    • Fighting disease
      • White blood cells
        • One type engulfs the bacteria and digests it
        • The worn out white blood cells, dead bacteria and broken cells form as pus in a cut
          • (redness and pus are signs the body is fighting infection)
      • Immune system
        • The parts of your body that fight infections
      • Antibiotics
        • Antimicrobial chemicals that kill Bacteria and Fungus
        • Some just stop reproduction
      • Antibodies
        • Produced by another type of white blood cell
        • Antibodies stick to foreign antigen markers
        • Once your body has created the anti bodies, memory cells remember them so are less likely to get the same illness twice
        • Illnesses with high mutation rates are less likely to be stopped by antibodies
    • Vaccines
      • Aim to stop  catching diseases in the first place
      • Kick start white blood cells antibody production
      • Small amount of dead or inactive form of the disease are put into your body
        • White blood cells the recognize the foreign micro-organisms and produce the right antibodies
          • Antibodies make the microorganisms stick together so can be engulfed
            • Memory cells are kept
              • Micro-organisms are killed before they make you ill
      • People can react differently to vaccinations
      • Benefits usually outweigh the risks
    • Resistant bacteria
      • If the full course of antibiotics is not completed
      • Mutations make them resistant
      • Resistant bacteria reproduce so the antibiotic is now useless against it
      • If people take antibiotics unnecessarily
    • New medicines
      • Takes years of research and lots of money
      • Human cell tests (with the disease)
        • Test  how well the chemical works against the disease
        • Gives an idea of how safe it is on a cell
      • Animal tests
        • To see how well it works on a whole body not just a cell
      • Clinical trials/ Human trials
        • Most effective/ representative
        • Test for side effects
        • Placebos can be used
        • Blind trials
          • Open- everyone knows    Blind- doctor knows  Double blind- no one knows
    • Circulation
      • Arteries = thickest         veins= middle +valves capillaries= small
      • Heart
        • 4 chambers
          • top two (atrium) receive blood
          • Bottom two (ventricles) thick muscle to pump blood
      • Blood enters from the right hand side, pumps it to the blood to get oxygen.
        • Then goes into the right which pumps it around the body
      • Heart attacks
        • Heart requires oxygen as it is a muscle
          • When fat builds up in coronary arteries
          • Artery becomes blocked
          • Becomes starved of oxygen, cells die
        • High blood pressure increases the risk
      • Heart disease
        • Any illness of the heart
        • Lifestyle choices can cause it
    • Causes of disease
      • Correlation between smoking and lung cancer
        • Chemicals in cigarettes damage the cells in lungs
    • Changing to stay the same
      • Salt levels and water
      • Control nutrients
      • Remove of carbon dioxide and Urea
      • A receptor-> a processing center-> an effector
      • Kidneys
        • Control water balance
      • Keeping conditions the same- homeostasis

Comments

Connor M

Its like a graph, For spiders

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