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  • Attachment
    • Shaffer - A close emotional relationship between two persons, characterised by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity
    • The main characteristics
      • Separation anxiety.
      • Seeking proximity.
      • pleasure when re united.
    • Stages in the development of attachment
      • Asocial stage: 0 - 6 Weeks smiling and crying not directed at any individual.
      • Indiscriminate 6 weeks - 7 months. Attention is sought from different individuals.
      • Specific 7 - 11 months. Strong attachment to one individual.
    • Secure attachment - distressed by caregivers absence, returns to a state of contentment upon return.
    • Insecure avoidant - doesnt seek contact with the caregiver, shows little distressed when separated and avoids caregiver upon return.
    • Insecure resistant - insecure in the presence of the caregiver, distressed when the caregiver leaves and resists contact upon return.
    • Individual differences
      • Maternal sensitivity hypothesis.
      • Temperament  hypothesis


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