Theories Of Attachment

A mind map of the 2 theories of attachment covered by the AQA A syllabus.  It includes Learning Theory and Bolwby's Theory.  In the green is strengths and red is limitations so to include both A01 and A02 points 

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  • Theories of Attachment
    • Learning Theory
      • All behaviour is learned
      • Classical Conditioning
        • Food produces pleasure
        • Feeder associated with food so also produces pleasure
      • Operant  Conditioning
        • Food is a primary Reinforcer
        • Feeder Becomes secondary reinforcer
      • Strengths
        • Evidence to Prove we do learn through conditioning
          • may however not just be food
      • Limitations
        • Harlow and Harlow
          • Study  suggested that Comfort is a more important factor than food
            • may however not just be food
        • Schaffer and Emerson
          • Found infants have stronger attachments with those who comfort and communicate with them rather than those who fed them
      • Validity
        • Largerly animal Studies used  so issues with generalisabity
    • Bowlby's Theories
      • Attachment is adaptive and innate
        • Imprinting  - Lorenz
        • Tronick  shows that attachment is universal and innate
      • Critical and sensitive period  between newly born and  5 years
        • Hodges and Tizard found that children who had formed no attachment  during this period had trouble later in life
        • Sensitive Period created after criticism . It was originally just the critical period that went up to 2 years old
      • Caregiving is Innate
        • Helped by social releases
          • Crying
          • Smiling
          • 'cooing '
          • 'Baby faces'
        • Harlow shows how interaction has to be responsive and comforting  to infant
      • Secure Base from which to explore
      • Monotropy  (forming a primary attachment )
        • Schaffer and Emerson
        • Other attachments such as fathers, grandparents and other relations
      • Internal Working Model  & Continuity Hypothesis
        • Internal Working Model develops as a template to base future social relations
        • Continuity Hypothesis is the link between early attachment and social & emotional development
          • Sroufe et al showed the differences in social etiquette of those with secure attachments and insure attachments



A very useful mind map which covers both the learning theory and evolutionary theory of attachment - great for AQA(a) Psychology students!

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