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  • Attachment
    • Type of Attachment
      • Insecure Resistant: babies showed intense distress when the mother left and rejected her attempts to comfort them as well as wanting closeness and distance at the same time.
      • Securely Attached: babies used the mother as a safe base, had separation anxiety and were weary of the stranger
    • Learning Theory
      • AO1 : The Learning theory suggest that babies learn to become attached to their mothers through either learning by association or reinforcement.
        • Learning by association: which to when the mother is associated with other pleasent stimuli like being cuddled and warm which is also called classical conditioning.
        • Learning by reinforcement:which is when the baby makes the association between food and their mother and then she is associated with positive reinforcement therefore gets attached to the mother.
      • AO2: 1) There is Counter Eviden, 2) There is over emphasis of emotional attachments
    • Evolutionary Theory (Bowlby's Theory)
      • AO1: Bowlby believed that there are clear  stages that a child goes through for their survival. Attachment results in a desire to maintain proximity and thus ensures safety.
        • 1) Attachment is adaptive:- promotes survival as it ensures safety and food
        • 2) Critical Period:- if attachment does not form before aged 2.5 years, attachments are more difficult to form
        • 3) Social releasers:- e.g. crying,laughing, smiling Babies are born with cute faces and use social releasers which elicit caregiving promoting their survival.
        • 4) Quality of care over quantity:- Ainsworth (1974)  proposed caregiving sensitivity hypothesis - responsive mothers = secure attachment
        • 5) Monotropy:- one attachment is more significant than the rest
        • 6) Internal Working Model:- Babies internalise their experiences of attachment to create a model which generates expectations of other relationships (Hazan & Shaver)
    • Strange Situation AO1
      • There were 8 different stages to the studies:
        • Stage 1: Mother and child are introduced to a room
          • Stage 2: Mother and child are left alone in the room so that the child can investigate.
            • Stage 3: A stranger enters the room and the mother talks to the stranger.
              • Stage 4: The mother leaves the child with the stranger and the stranger interacts with the child.
                • Stage 5: The mother returns to greet and comfort the child.
                  • Stage 6: The child is left on its own.
                    • Stage 7: The stranger returns and tries to engage with the child.
                      • Srage 8: The mother returns and greets and picks up the child and the stranger leaves inconspicuously.
      • There were  Behavioural categories which were used to assess child's behaviour in the Strange Situation
        • 'Safe Base' Behaviour: whether the child uses the mother as a safe base
      • Findings : 66% were Securely attached, 22% were Insecure Avoidant and 12%were Insecure Resistant
  • Seperation Anxiety: whether the child is anxious when the mother leaves the room
    • Stranger Fear: whether the child shows anxiety when the stranger approaches them
      • Reunion: whether the child shows any interest when the mother comes back.


arianator 4 life


thank you

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