attachment

  • Created by: sophiemai
  • Created on: 15-04-19 09:21
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  • Attachment
    • Care giver infant interactions
      • interactional synchrony - same action same time   reciprocity - resonding to an action  two way action to form an emotional bond
      • Eval; 1- very hard to test babies 2- high validity 3- purpose still unknown 4- socially sensitive
    • Schaffers stages of attachment
      • asocial, indescriminate, specific, multiple  found in longitudinal glaswegian working class study
      • Eval; 1- external validity 2- internal vaildity 3- cuturally bias 4- hard to test babies
    • Role of the father
      • mainly the secondary bond, 75% attached by 18 months, less importnat than mothers - better for stimulation rather than nurture - can take primary carer role but dont - social not biological
      • eval; 1- no clear answer 2- sexist 3- social bias 4- less pressure on mums
    • animal studies
      • harlow - monkeys wanted comfort not food, lead to badly behaved monkeys. lorenz - geeze imprinted with a critical period in whic attachment occurs
      • Eval; 1- genralising from animas 2- support for imprinting 3- ethical issues 4- real life appication
    • explanations of attachment
      • Bowlby
        • evolutionary theroy of attachment, it is an innatesurvival advantage to attach, monotropic  using social releasers with 2 year critical period and is alo inner working model for future relationships
        • Eval; 1- supporting evidence 2- mixed evidence 3- support for inner working mode 4- socially sensitive
      • learning theory
        • classical conditioning - learning through association operant conditioninng - learning through reinforcement
        • eval; 1- animal studies prove otherwise 2- humans disagree 3- ignores other factors 4- could play part just not feeding
    • maternal deprivation Bowlby
      • long term separation from Pc giver likey to cause psychological damage - 44 theives study - lower IQ & have affectionless psycopathy   14/44 had AP 12 of the 14 had prolonged separation early on in life
      • eval; 1- bias results 2- contrasting evidence 3- sensitive peroid not critical 4- animal studies agree
    • ainsworth strange situation & variations
      • strange situation studied the security of the childs attachment, finding 3 types of attachment;
        • Secure - explores but needs base moderate seperation anxiety , requires and accepts love on reunion
        • insecure avoidant - freely explores little/ no sepraration anixety no comfort needed
        • insecure resistant- no exploration lost of anxiety resists comfort
        • Eval; 1- predictive validity 2- good interrater reliability 3- culturally bias 4- actually 5 attachment types
      • variations
        • ijzendoorn meta analysis of strange situation across world found secure was most common 75% uk 50% china  avriations withing countries were greater than between contries insecure avoidant most common in germany least in japan insecure resistant  the overall least common 3& u but 30 in israel
          • eval ; 1- meta anal = gooood 2- cultural differnces 3- culturally bias 4- temperment ofchild = confounding variable
    • romanian orphan study
      • institutionalisation lead to disinhibited attachment, phyical & mental damage compared to a control group - mentally retarded
        • study longitudinally - found that if adopted before 6 months old better chance of recovery 6ys = 77IQ with disinhibited attachment observale in any adoptees older than 6 months
      • eval; 1- real life application 2- few confounding variables 3- genralisability issues 4- long term effects clear
    • influence of early attachment on later relationships
      • innner working model is template for future. secure attachments = better friendships &less likely to bully IA= victims IR= bullys also effected parenting style
        • love quiz study found that 56% s 25% IA 19% IR  = reflected in relationships - s - more likely to have long romantic relationships IA - more likley to be jealous & fear intimacy
        • eval; 1- mixed evidence 2- issues with validity 3- association not causation 4- exaggerated effects

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