Attachment

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  • Attachment
    • Caregiver-infant interactions
      • Observations don't tell us purpose of synchrony and reciprocity
      • Well-controlled procedures
      • Research into mother-infant interactions is socially sensitive
      • Hard to know what is happening when observing infants
      • Potential value to society
    • Role of the father
      • Researchers interested in different questions
      • Evidence undermines idea of fathers having distinct roles
      • Research fails to provide clear answer about fathers and primary attachments
      • Social biases prevent objective observation
      • Economic implications
    • Stages of attachment
      • 1. Asocial      2. Indiscriminate 3. Specific     4. Multiple
      • Schaffer & Emerson (1964)
        • Problem studying asocial year
          • 1. Asocial      2. Indiscriminate 3. Specific     4. Multiple
        • Problem with how multiple attachment is assessed
          • Longitudinal
          • External validity
      • Animal studies
        • Lorenz - Imprinting
          • Generalises findings from birds to humans
          • Support for concept of imprinting - Guiton
          • Observations and conclusions questioned
        • Harlow - Contact comfort
          • Practical application
          • Ethical issues
          • Generalises findings from monkeys to humans
      • Learning theory
        • Importance of food
          • Lorenz and Harlow provide evidence against this
          • Schaffer showed some factors more important than food
          • Ignores reciprocity and interactional synchrony
        • CC
          • Some elements involved e.g. associations between PCG and comfort
        • OC
        • NR
        • Drive reduction
      • Bowlby
        • Monotropic Theory
          • Mixed evidence
          • Support for IWM - Bailey
          • Socially sensitive
          • Temperament
        • Maternal deprivation
          • 44 thieves
            • Biased
            • Counter-evidence - Lewis
          • Critical period more of a sensitive period
          • Levy - rats
      • Ainsworth's **
        • A - Insecure-avoidant         B - Secure    C - Insecure-resistant
        • Predictive validity
        • Inter-rater reliability
        • Culture-bound test
        • More than 3 attachment types
      • Cultural variations
        • Van Ijendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) meta-analysis
          • Large sample-size
          • Sample not representative of cultures
          • ** method biased towards American / British culture
          • Temperament a confounding variable in **
            • Simonelli (2014)
              • ** method biased towards American / British culture
        • Simonelli (2014)
        • Romanian Orphan studies
          • Rutter (2011) English & Romanian adoptees
            • Practical application
            • Fewer confounding variables - high internal validity
            • Lack generalis-ability
            • LT effects not yet clear
          • Zeanah (2005) early intervention
            • Lack generalis-ability
        • Influence on later relationships
          • IWM
            • Mixed evidence
            • Lacks validity due to interview bias
            • Association rather than causation
          • Hazan and Shaver (1987) Romantic relationships
            • IWM is unconscious - indirect evidence

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