Physics P2 Atomic Structure

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  • Atomic Structure
    • Atomic Structure
      • An atom is made from a nucleus and surrounded by electrons
      • Isotopes have the same number of protons but a different number on neutrons
      • Atoms contain three sub-atomic particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and neutrons are found in the centre of the atom and the electrons are arranged in energy levels around the nucleus.
      • Protons have a relative mass of 1 and a charge of +1. Neutrons have a relative mass of 1 and a charge of 0. Electrons have a relative mass of almost zero and a charge of negative -1.
      • An ion is formed when the outer shell of electrons are full. If an atom loses electrons, it becomes positely charged, and vice versa.
      • Plum pudding model is a sphere of positive energy with negatively charged electrons dotted around
      • Rutherford scattering experiment fired alpha particles at a gold leaf and discovered that some were deflected.
    • Nuclear Radiation
      • Backgroun radiation is all around us, and most comes from natural sources.
        • Natural sources include cosmic rays, rocks and living things.
        • Human activity has added to radiation from x-rays and power stations
      • We can detect radiation by using photographic paperas it turns darker when absorbing radiation.
        • A geiger-muller tube also detects radiation by sending a pulse everytime it is detected.
      • Alpha radiation consists of helium nuclei
        • Alpha is the least penetrating-blocked by a peice of paper
        • Gamma radiation is released with the other 2 types of radiation and is a long wavelength
          • Gamma is the most penetrating but is stopped by lead.
        • Beta radiation consists of high energy electrons from a neutron splitting into a proton and electron.
          • Beta can go through air and paper but not aluminium
          • Gamma radiation is released with the other 2 types of radiation and is a long wavelength
            • Gamma is the most penetrating but is stopped by lead.
      • Beta radiation consists of high energy electrons from a neutron splitting into a proton and electron.
        • Beta can go through air and paper but not aluminium
      • Alpha is positevely charge, beta is negatively charged and gamma is neutral.
        • Alpha and beta can be deflected be magnetic fields but gamma cannot.
      • Radiation can affect dna and if so,can become cancerous.
      • If the source of radiation is outside the body then alpha is the most dangerous due to its size
      • inside the body, gamma and beta are damaging due to the high penetration level.
      • Half lifes change one element into another and is how long it takes for half the nuclei to de-compose.
      • Uses of radiation:smoke detectors, sterilising and killing cancer cells.Doctors use them as tracers due to some elements having a short half life. They can also be used for modelling thickness of materials.
      • Alpha decay is where the mass number decreases by 4 and atomic number decreases by 2.
      • In beta decay, the atomic number stays the same but the atomic number increase by 1.
    • Fission and Fusion
      • Fission
        • This is where the nucleus splits.
          • First a neutron is absorbs by a uranium nucleus. Then it splits and another neutron is fired and the process repeats.
            • This process creates energy
      • Fusion
        • Nuclear fusion is joining two nuclei to make a larger nucleus and energy is released when this happens
          • Eg hydrogen 1 and hydrogen 2 making helium 3

Comments

Miss KHP

Fantastic mind map! The colours dividing the sections will engage the readers and make it clear as to what belongs in each section. Nice use of summarised text, perhaps try and summarise the longer sections but very good. 

Useful for AQA P2

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