AS Language and Gender theorists

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  • AS EngLang gender  Theorists
    • Robin Lakoff - Politeness Theory for women
      • Women use fewer expletives (swear less) and tend to speak less than men. Also that women use more intensifers like so and very.
        • Lakoff claims that women use more hedges and fillers like sort of, kind of, maybe. They use apologetic requests (e.g. I'm sorry would you mind closing the door?) they also use Tag Questions (e.g. This is nice, isn't it) and indirect requests (e.g. Its very noisy out there ((meaning could you close the door?))
    • Trudgill (1983) found from research of social class accents that women's pronunciation was closer to Received PronunciationRP, the accent that is usually seen as most prestigious.
      • Chesire (1982) studied the speech of teen boys and girls, and found that  boys tended to use more non-standard grammatical forms, e.g. Ain't, than girls.
    • Zimmerman and West (1975) suggested that men are dominant in male-female conversations. This is the dominance model
      • Tannen  (1990)  described male and female conversationalstyle in terms of difference. She said that Men: are concerned with status and independence,e.g. They interrupt alot. They give direct orders, e.g. Pass me that and they do not mind conflict. They are interested in gaining factual information and finding soloutions to problems. Women: are interested in forming bonds- they tend to talk less and agree more than men. They usually give polite, indirect orders e.g. Would you mind passing me that, and try to avoid conflict. Women aim to show understandingby compromising and offering support rather than soloutions.


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