APPROACHES - The Psychodynamic approach

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  • The Psychodynamic approach
    • Spec
      • role of unconscious
      • structure of personality (id, ego, superego)
      • defence mechanisms (inc. denial, repression, displacement )
      • psychosexual stages
    • Role of unconscious
      • Freud - latent (hidden) desires are shown as manifest (open, obvious) behavs
        • eg. 20 yr old marries 45 year old - manifest: love, attraction, money. Latent: unconscious desire for father (Electra)
      • can be seen through dreams
        • dream therapy, associations, Rorschach blots
    • Personality
      • id = first to develop. connected to libido, driven by pleasure principle. Unconscious
      • super-ego - morality principle, internalised norms + values (developed from same-sex parent). Unconscious
      • ego - reality principle, manages id/superego. Conscious - the one we are aware of
        • difficult for ego, battle between superego and id - defence mechanisms to protect it
    • Defence mechanisms
      • repression - the inability to remember harmful experiences. something we've done before, childhood experiences
        • when we remember it too well - PTSD
      • denial - carry on as if the thing that happened didn't  happen. unconscious refusal to accept reality
      • displacement - an unacceptable transfer of emotion to a neutral object or person
        • eg. can't swear at a teacher so instead shout at friends at break
    • Psychosexual stages
      • must transition well from one stage to another, any trouble here results in becoming fixated at this level
      • oral
        • fixation on mouth, pleasure gained through mouth eg. breastfeeding
          • if breastfeed too much / less, can be fixated
            • too much, greedy
            • too little, uptight and still looking for pleasure through mouth (finger biting etc)
            • people who were not fed as much as a baby, more likely to smoke
      • anal
        • potty trained, character of parents more important
        • strict parents - analy retentive - scared of going to toilet, excessively tidy, stingy, holding onto things (hoarder)
          • analy expulsive - happy children, generous, extravagant
        • anal clusters - personality types do cluster together, tight and orderly person more likely to be stingy and vice versa
      • phallic
        • child becomes interested in their genitals and electra / oedipus complex
        • Boys - oedipus
          • desire for mother -> jealousy of father -> castration anxiety -> identifies with father and develops super ego
          • stuck here, feelings for mother, hate father and other males. No father figure - gay
        • Girls - electra
          • desire mother but can't have her bc she cut their penis off -> (penis envy) desire father for his penis -> jealous of mother -> can't compete with mother -> desire baby instead of penis
          • no castration anxiety - less developed super ego
      • latent
        • nothing much happens - everything under surface
      • genital
        • no such thing as puberty here, normal adult, sexual rels etc
    • Eval (A03)
      • unscientific / unfalsifiable - can't investigate unconscious
        • some things can tested - eg. smoking and breastfeeding etc
      • Freud used case studies - unreliable, some used letters
        • Little Hans - Freud never met him. Fear of father transferred onto horse
      • overly complicated - Hans  could be explained by learning theory instead of unconscious
      • acknowledges the role of early childhood experiences, importance of parents
      • first talking therapy - did lead to more therapy development
      • cultural ipact - terms used such as being in denial etc

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