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  • Approaches
    • Biological
      • Genotype
        • Genes
      • Phenotype
        • How genes are expressed e.g. behaviour, physical and psychological
      • Genetics
        • Twin studies- monozygotic have higher concordance rates than dizygotic. 100% genes vs 50%
          • Monozygotic twins have the same genotype but different phenotypes
      • Neurochemistry
        • Neurotransmitters- brain chemicals, communicate info through brain and body, relay signals between neurones. Can explain mental disorders e.g. low serotonin contributes to depressions
      • Summation - electrical impulses in neurones triggers release of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters. No.of excitatory vs no.of inhibitory= if that neurone will fire
        • Excitation- makes adjacent neurone more likely to fire
        • Inhibition- make adjacent neurone less likely to fire .e.g. GABA= anti-anxiety affect
          • Excitatory- inhibitory = net potential. If reaches threshold neurone will fire
    • Behaviourist
      • Classical conditioning: Pavlov- learn through association, dogs salivate at sound of bell. 1.UCS-(response)-UCR.  2.NS-(response)-UCR 3. UCS+NS-(response)-UCR 4.CS-CR
      • Operant conditioning:Skinner- behaviour shaped by consequences.
        • Punishment- unpleasant consequences, less likely to repeat behaviour
        • Skinner box- positive reinforcement, rats. Accidentally knock lever=dropped food pellet. In time rat learns to knock leaver to get food
        • Positive reinforcement- reward to repeat behaviour
        • Negative reinforcement- avoid N consequences, more likely to repeat behaviour
    • Social learning theory
      • Directly- WE experience reinforcement
      • Bandura- develops behaviourist approach. Operant and classical conditioning can’t account for all learning, process needed to mediate.
      • Indirectly- we observe associations OTHERS make and learn from these
      • Vicarious reinforcement- more likely to imitate if see rewarded, observed consequences mediate stimulus and response
      • Role of mediational process- bridge between learning theory and cognitive approach, focuses on how mental factors are involved in learning
      • Performance learning- 1. Attention (we notice behav) 2. Retention (remembered) 3. Motor reproduction (ability to observe) 4. Motivation (will to perform)
      • Identification-more likely to imitate behaviour of role models
      • Bandura et al- children watch adults play aggressively with Bobo doll, more aggressive than control
      • Bandura and Walters- showed 1 of 3 videos. 1)model praised -repeated aggressive behaviour. 2)punished- showed least aggression 3)no consequence- aggression level between 1 and 2
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