biological approach application to smoking and gambling

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: athinaP
  • Created on: 12-05-16 20:08
View mindmap
  • application to smoking
    • initiation
      • meta analysis. analysed data from 140 ,000 people + found DNA variants associated with whether people start smoking
        • convincing evidence as the sample was big
        • study shows a correlation,  not cause and effect.  likely genetics led to a predisposition and   environmental factors are needed to start the addiction
    • maintenance
      • schacher: double blind study with adult smokers. 4 weeks ppts alternated between high + low nicotine cigarettes.
        • found ppts smoked more low nicotine cigarettes compared to high nicotine cigarettes.
          • this effect was especially strong in heavy smoker who smoked 25% more of the low nicotine compared to high nicotine cigarettes
    • relapse
      • Lerman: tested smokers who had stopped for one night.
        • found increased blood-flow to parts of the brain associated with memory, reward + learning.
          • this shows these parts of the brain are active when a person craves a cigarette
  • application to gambling
    • relapse
      • wray + Dickerson found 60% of pathological gamblers reported physical side effects (insomnia, breathing difficulties, loss of appetite)
        • these were sometimes more severe than those recorded by a comparison group withdrawing from drugs
    • initiation
      • slutske: looked at concordance rates of nearly 5000 MZ + DZ twins in relation to gambling addiction
        • found concordance rate was 2X as high in MZ twins than it was in DZ twins
    • maintenance
      • chase + Clarke: studied 24 regular gamblers
        • completed computerise slot machine gambling game while mid brains were  FMRI scanned.
          • increased activity in mesolimbic system from wins but also from  near misses
            • higher the level of gambling severity= greater recorded response


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Addictive behaviour resources »