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  • Alkalis
    • Alkalis are a type of chemical
      • 1) Alkalis include soluable hydroxides and carbonates (NaOH)(KOH) and Calcium Carbonate
      • An alkali is a compound that forms hydroxide ions (OH) when dissolved in water
      • 2) An acid and an alkali react together to form a salt and water, The product is neutral.
      • 3) Reaction between an acid & a hydroxide gives a salt & water. ACID + HYDROXIDE = SALT + WATER
      • 2) Acid and carbonate gives carbon dioxide, salt and water. ACID + CARBONATE = SALT + WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE
    • Alkalis have been used for hundreds of years
      • 1) Important Chemicals used for all sorts.
        • A. Crops need neutral soil to grow, and some soil needs acidic, so it needs to be neutralised before the crops are planted. Farmers use alkalis to neutralise these acidic soils.
        • B. Alkalis are used to make chemicals that allow neutral dyes to bind to cloth.
        • c. Alkalis are used to convert fats & oils into soap.
        • D. They are also used to manufacture glass
      • 2) Alkalis have been used for these purposes for many years. Before industrialisation people relied on traditional sources of alkalis such as burnt wood and stale urine.
      • 3) Increased uses of alkalis in industry in the 19th century led to a shortage, meaning they had to be manufactured
      • 6) This solid waste slowly released hydrogen sulfide, which is toxic and foul smelling.
      • 4) The first process for manufacturing an alkali (Sodium carbonate) used limestone (calcium carbonate) and salt (sodium chloride)
      • 5) This process created a lot of pollution, large volumes of the acidic gas hydrogen chloride were released along with lots of solid waste


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