Alexander II: Overview

Alexander II Key sections

Oppostion

War and Revolution

Economy

Life of the People

Structure of Government

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  • Alexander III
    • War and Revolution
      • Signed Treaty of Paris in 1856 to end Crimean War
      • Came to Throne during Crimean War in 1855
      • Crimean War made him realise Russia was no longer a great military power
        • His adivsors argued this was due to Serfdom not being able to compete with industrialised economies
        • It is better to abolish serfdom from above than to wait for the time when it will begin to abolish itself from below"
    • Life of the People
      • Freed the Serfs with Emancipation Manifesto in 1861
      • Emancipation Edit allowed peasants to buy land from Landlords: the Government paid and would receive redemption payments in 49 years
      • Universal Military training from 1974
        • Reduced military duty from 25 years to 6
      • Given inadequate land and had to pay more than it was worth
    • Opposition
      • Emancipation did not satisfy liberals or radicals who wanted parliamentary democracy and freedom of expression
      • In 1876 Land and Liberty were formed despite it being illegal to criticize the Russian Government. Ideas came from Mikhail Bakunin
        • In October 1979, Land and Liberty Split into People's Will (who favoured terrorism) and the Black Repartisians
      • Alexander Soloviev attempted assaination attempt on Alexander II in April 1879; he was executed the following month
      • After many attempts on his life, in 180, Alexander II announced he was considering granting a constitution
      • Killed by Grinevitski on his way to the Winter Palace in March 1881
    • Economy
      • in the 1860s, Russia had around 1200 miles of railway compared to 15,500 in 1880
    • Structure of Government
      • In 1864 he allowed each district to set up a Zemstvo with powers to provide roads, schools and medical services, however only the rich could vote and they had no monetary powers
      • Improved Municipal Government in 1870
      • As he announced he was considering a constitution, he also set up the Okhrana
      • In January 1881, Loris Melikof suggested expanding the Zemstvo
      • The Judiciary became an independent branch of government and single unified system in 1964
  • Structure of Government
    • In 1864 he allowed each district to set up a Zemstvo with powers to provide roads, schools and medical services, however only the rich could vote and they had no monetary powers
    • Improved Municipal Government in 1870
    • As he announced he was considering a constitution, he also set up the Okhrana
    • In January 1881, Loris Melikof suggested expanding the Zemstvo
    • The Judiciary became an independent branch of government and single unified system in 1964

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