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    • Emancipation
      • 1861. Serfs legally free to marry, vote, leave land. Land allocated. However, land received was smaller than previously.
      • However, restrictions still remained, redemption payments, internal passports, Mir still controlled their lives, and nobles got best land.
      • Had to pay for land over 49 years. Communes used backward agricultural methods such as the 'solcha' or wooden plough.
      • Nobles lost land, serfs, free labour, status and control. Many sold their land for profit. Many moved to cities and towns.
      • Reasons? - The moral case. Risk of revolt. The Crimean War. Economic reasons.
      • Consequences? -
    • Reforms
      • Judicial - 1864-65
        • Local Govt. - 1864
          • Education - early 1860s
            • Military - 1861-81
              • Censorship - 1865
                • Economic
                • Censorship laws formalising relaxation of censorship. Newspapers, books, periodicals didn't have to be submitted for prior censorship. Newspapers could report government policy and jury trials.
              • Poor showing in Crimean War. Recognised Russia would need to modernise and be able to defend itself.
                • 1860s - army took up 1/3 of government's income.
                • Conscription 25 years. Burden. Poor training, military officers all nobles. Harsh discipline.
                  • Admin of army was reorganised.Military colleges.
                  • Attempts to increase artillery, break down class privilege. Smaller more professional army. However army still reliant on peasant conscripts.
            • Majority of population were illiterate and uneducated.
              • First decade of his reign, number of pupils roughly doubled. New all-class inclusive primary schools built.
                • 1856-1878 no. of primary schools increased 8,000 to 25,000
                • Curriculum extended, more modern. Universities more freedom of choice.
          • Zemstva to run aspects of local govt, roads, health, schools. Appointed professionals, teachers, doctors. Extended to take in town councils.
            • Challenged authority of central govt. Uneasy relationship developed.
    • Opposition
      • The Black Partition, Land and LIberty, The People's Will
      • Assassinated in 1881 by the People's Will
        • Return of more classical subjects. Revolutionary views led to expulsion.
          • Some reforms did continue. Local govt. etended 1870. MIlitary continued. Women to universities.
      • He became reactionary in 1866 after an assassination attempt. Reforms hadn't led to contentment but disruption and increasing demands.
        • Nihilists, Narodniks/ Populists, Active women. 1873: Narodnik 'going to the people'. 1879, other groups took shape.
        • Populists. Inspired by Peter Lavrov. Believed in agrarian socialism. Wanted equality for peasants. Dressed up like them.
      • Polish Revolt of 1863. Liberal ministers lost influence in govt. Shuvalov made head of the Third Section. Brought in tighter controls.
        • Emancipation deceived peasants? Old serfdom replaced by new serfdom. Students became liberal and radical. Growing intelligentsia. Books, Chernyshevsky.
    • Zemstva
      • Elected district and provincial (local) councils. 1864 - Local govt. reform.
      • Measure of self-govt. at a local level. Elected by nobles, town dwellers, peasants. Electoral system favoured the nobility.
      • Only introduced into provinces where Russians formed the ruling elites. The councils had responsibility for health, education, maintenance.
      • Brought improvement to areas in which they operated. Roads, health facilities, schools.
      • Restrictions placed on taxation. Dominated by nobility. Peasants not included.
    • Economic growth
      • Finance Ministers
        • Mikhail von Reutern 1862-1878
      • Construction of Trans-Siberian Railway. By the end of his reign, railways were 15 times longer.
      • Hindrance -


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