active transport

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  • Active transport
    • The movement  of molecules in or out of a cell from a region of low concentration to high concentration using energy and carrier molecules.
    • Requires ATP
    • Works against its concentration gradient.
    • Carrier proteins act as pumps.
    • ATP can be used  to directly move molecules or during co-transport.
    • Carrier proteins span length of bilayer.
      • Molecules bind to receptors on the channel of carrier proteins.
        • ATP binds and splits into ADP and a phosphate molecule.
          • Protein molecule changes shape releasing the molecules on the other side of the membrane.
            • Phosphate molecule rejoins with ADP to form ATP causing the protein to change to its original shape.
    • Sodium potassium pump
      • One molecule is moved out of a cell while another is moved in at the same time.
      • Sodium ions are removed from the cell while potassium molecules are taken in.


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