Acids and Alkalis

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  • Acids and Alkalis
    • PH scale
      • Goes from 0-14
      • 0-6 is acidic with 0 being the strongest
      • 8-14 is an alkali with 14 being the strongest
      • 7 is a neutral  substance e.g. water
    • Neutralisers
      • Acids --From H+ ions in water
      • Base
        • A substance with 7+ PH
        • Alkali is a base dissolves in water
        • Alkali's form OH- ions in water
    • Acids reacting with metals
      • Acid + Metal = Salt + Hydrogen
      • The more reactive a metal is, the faster the reaction.
      • The speed of reaction is shown by the rate of hydrogen bubbles
      • Hydrogen is confirmed by the splint test - With a squeaky pop
      • Salts producted
        • Hydrochloric acid produces chloride salts
        • Sulfuric acid produces sulfate salts
        • Nitric acid produces nitrate salts
    • Oxides and Hydroxide
      • Metal Oxides and Hydroxides are Bases
      • Acid + Metal Oxide/ Hydroxide = Salt + Water
      • Combination of metal and acid decides salt
    • Ammonia
      • Can be neutralised with Nitric acid to make fertiliser
      • Fertiliser is Ammonium Nitrate
      • NH3 + HNO3 = NH4NO3
    • Making Salts
      • Soluble salts
        • Using metal or an insoluble base
        • Using alkali
      • Insoluble salts
        • Precipitation reactions

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