A Moving World


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  • A Moving World
    • Different Types of Population Movement
      • Migration
        • The movement of people from one place to another.
      • Immigration
        • The movement into a country.
      • Commuter
        • A person who lives in one area and travels to another area where they work.
      • Emigration
        • The movement out of a country,
      • Short Term Population Movement
        • Movements of people for a short period of time such as university, holiday or commuters.
    • The Main Migration flows into and within Europe since 1945
      • Iron Curtain
        • Countries in East Europe which didn't allow movement to West Europe.
      • Commonwealth Countires
        • Countries that were conquered and ruled by the UK.
      • European Union (EU)
        • A group of countries in Europe which have no restrictions on travelling and work between them.
      • Flows into Europe
        • Many workers migrated from Turkey to Germany after WWII.
        • A number of European countries received migrants from their colonies. e.g. France received migrants from countries in North Africa like Algeria and Senegal. The UK received migrants from India and the Carribean.
        • Between 1960 and 1990, a number of European countries received political migrants looking for safety. e.g. Spain got from Argentina and Uruguay,
      • Flows within Europe
        • After the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989 there was a large movement of people from East to West Europe.
        • The growth of the EU has led to an increase in migration between member states, in particular new countries in east Europe moving to Germany. France and the UK. In 2008 700,000 Poles were working in the UK.
        • People move from Northern Europe to Southern Europe such as Spain when they retire.
      • Colonies
        • Countries that have been conquered and ruled from another country.
    • Social And Economic Impacts on the country of origin and host country
      • UK
        • Economic
          • The average migrant worker earns over £20,000 per year in the UK, adding to the economy.
          • Some 27,000 child benefit applications have been approved. This is a burden on the welfare state.
          • Migrant workers do low-paid jobs such as crop picking.
        • Social
          • Polish shops on many British high streets gives variety to the culture.
          • Migrants are generally young, so it makes the UK workforce younger.
          • The Cambridgeshire police has to deal with over 100 languages, It is difficult and expensive to find translators.
      • Poland
        • Economic
          • Salaries increased by 9% in 2007.
          • In 2007 there were many vacancies in the construction industry, due to a shortage of workers.
          • Scientists have received a one-off payment of £5000 to stay in Poland.
        • Social
          • Wages have increased in Poland which means people have a higher standard of living.
          • Rural areas are losing population in the 20-30 age group as they are the ones who migrate.This means that schools are closing.
          • The birth rate has decreased because of the loss of people in reproductive age groups.
    • Factors influencing population movement
      • Technology
        • People can use the internet to look for work and find accommodation in other countries.
        • People can keep in close contact with friends and family when they move away.
        • Book flights and other forms of transportation to move easily around the world.
      • Transport
        • Faster modes of transport have allowed people to move more quickly, People now commute by train.
        • Budget airlines have flights to many small airports in Europe allowing people to travel around much more cheaply.
        • Major improvements have been made on rail and road services. The opening of the Channel tunnel has made it easy to drive or use the train to travel to France, High-speed rail and motorways link to the major cities of Europe.
      • Government Policies
        • People are free to move between the member countries of the EU, they just need a passport and identity card.
        • The UK introduced an entry points system in 2008, Highly skilled migrants are still welcome in the UK as long they reach a pass mark of 75 points.
    • Reasons for short term population flows
      • Reasons for medical flows
        • Private health care is too expensive in the UK.
        • Waiting lists for treatment is too long in the UK.
        • Some treatments are a part of package holidays.
        • Hospitals have a poor reputation in the UK. they are seen as dirty and lacking in patient care, for example the case of Staffordshire Trust deaths.
        • Dental Treatment is much cheaper in Hungary where a crown only costs £200 instead of £650 in the UK.
      • Reasons for tourism flows
        • Movement away from cold and wet climates to warm ones.
        • Workers have more disposable income and hence can afford to go on holiday each year.
        • The media provide info about different countries which encourages people to travel.
        • Stunning sceneries and attractions   encourages people to go on holiday there.
        • Transport is now improved to make it easier to travel around countries, like the Channel tunnel.
      • Economic
        • The main reason for economic migration is for a better paid job and an increase in wealth. Other migrants are seasonal workers who come to pick crops. Many come to Lincolnshire every year to help on farms during the season.
      • Sport
        • People want to attend sporting events, for example the London 2012 Olympics.
        • People move around the world to compete in sporting events to compete against the best players in tournaments.
    • Case Studies
      • Retirement Migration to North Norfolk
        • Reasons for Migration
          • Property is cheaper
            • The average house price is approximately £150,000 less than in London.
          • Stunning Scenery
            • North Norfolk is an Area of Outstanding National Beauty and the coastline has been designated a Heritage coast.
          • Climate
            • North Norfolk is one of the driest areas in England with an annual rainfall of 625mm. It also has the highest summer temperatures.
          • Lifestyle
            • North Norfolk has a slow pace of life and a lower crime rate than other parts of the UK
        • Consequence of Migration
          • Housing
            • The demand for houses has increased due to the number of migrants increasing. Locals cannot afford to live in the area (especially young couples) as the price of housing has increased.
          • Provision of services
            • Some village services such as local shops have benefited. However schools have suffered and have to be closed as most migrants do not have children.
          • Population Structure
            • North Norfolk now has an aging population. This is a burden on the council as more medical and care services need to be provided.
          • Village Character
            • Some villages such as Burnham market have lost their traditional feel as modern shops have moved into vacant promises to cater to wealthy migrants. Village halls now have activities centered to older people rather than a youth club.
      • Retirement Migration to Spain
        • Reasons for Migration
          • Climate
            • The temperature is approx. 10 degrees warmer than the UK.
          • Communication Networks
            • Many budget airlines fly to Spain for approximately £50. It takes less time to fly to Spain than it does to drive to Manchester. Hence, people can come home regularly.
          • Lifestyle
            • The lifestyle is very relaxed as there is a low crime rate.
          • Property
            • Property in Spain on average is cheaper than in the UK.
        • Consequence for Migration
          • Housing
            • There has been a lot of development along the coast of Spain. This has caused damage to the environment. In 1998 the government passed the Coastal Law which states that any property built within 106m of the shore can be demolished.
          • Water
            • Many of the migrants move to a very dry area; Valencia. Water is being used for aesthetic purposes and swimming pools in which the migrants are buying these properties. This is causing friction between the host community and the migrants.
          • Leisure Facilities
            • There are many leisure facilities provided for the migrants, in Murcia 54 golf courses have been built in the last 10 years.
          • Health Care
            • Many British retire to the Costa Blanca area of Spain. It's estimated that the British migrants are costing the local government £800 million a year in health care costs.

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