Sparta - 550 - 490 BC

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  • 550 - 490 BC
    • Cleomenes I (520-490BC)
      • Herodotus tells us about Cleomenes
        • Herodotus attributes Cleomenes painful death to the sacriledge he performed at the Battle of Sepeia
      • In 506 Cleomenes led a Peloponnesian force to Attica
        • Cleomenes did not tell the force of their target
        • Their target (Athens) came apparent when the forces reached Attica
        • The Corinthians changed their mind as they didn't think war with Athens was right.
        • The rest of the allies then withdrew also and the campaign failed
      • In 499BC Aristagoras of Miletus came to Sparta asking for help against the Persians
        • Cleomenes decided not to help him, but it took the sharp wits of his 8 year old daughter Gorgo
      • In 494 BC Cleomenes led forces to Argos
        • Known as the Battle of Sepeia
        • Cleomenes carried out a coup de grace against Argos in which he ordered the helots to burn down the sacred wood of Argos
          • This killed the 6000 Argive warrior citizens that were hidden inside
      • Cleomenes used the Delphic Oracle to indicate that Demaratus was illegitimate
    • Anaxandridas
      • Herododtus tells us about this King
      • Anaxandridasfirst wife had been blamed for failing to conceive
        • But he loved her and refused to divorce her even when formally commanded by the Ephors
          • "as your wife bears no children you had better get rid of her and marry someone else"
            • Herododtus tells us about this King
        • So he committed bigamy by marrying a second wife
      • He went on to have 4 sons, by his second wife he had Cleomenes, and by his first wife he had Dorieus, Leonidas and Cleombrotus
        • This caused a succession dispute between Cleomenes and Dorieus
          • The Spartans chose the first born male son
    • Untitled
    • Demaratus (515 - 491BC)
      • Herodotus tells us about Cleomenes co-king
        • Untitled
        • Herodotus softens his criticisms
          • He used a descendant of Demaratus as his informant
      • After Cleomenes failed invasion into Attica in 506 BC a law was passed saying that only one king could go on campaign at any one time
        • This was because Demaratus had sided with the Corinthians
      • Demaratus played a big part in bringing Cleomenes to trial for his failure to capture the city of Argos
        • Cleomenes was acquitted
      • Demaratus was deposed in 491BC
        • This was because Cleomenes brought back  an oracle from Delphi claiming that Demaratus was illegitimate
        • Demaratus thien went into voluntary exile after being insulted by the new King, Leotychides
          • He left for Persia where he functions as the wise advisor to King Xerxes
    • Cleisthenes and Isagoras 507BC
      • There was a power struggle in Athens between two noble families, represented by Cleisthenes and Isagoras


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