1600s: religion

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  • Religion during the 1600s
    • Charles' reign
      • 1625: England was a Confessional State
        • Failure to attend CofE services treated as a crime
        • Beliefs set out in the Book of Common Prayer
          • Mostly linked to the Elizabethan Settlement
        • But there were growing divisions within Anglicanism about the church's beliefs and practices
          • Arminianism promoted rituals and formal ceremony
            • Followed the Catholic belief in free will = can reject salvation
              • Contrast: Puritans believe in predestination
      • Laud and the Arminian threat 1625-40
        • Laud was promoted Bishop of London in 1628 and then Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633
          • London = largest bishoprick: large influence
          • Arminian: wanted to impose religious uniformity on church services
            • Moved the communion table to the east end of the church
            • Vestments and incense were to be used in services
              • Angered the Puritans because they stressed outward forms of worship
                • Offended further by Laud's Book of Sports in 1633
                  • Allowed people to participate in traditional sports and pastimes on Sundays
                    • Puritans saw Sunday as a holy day of rest
                • Some Puritans appeased by the reduction in the number of sermons
            • Hymns and sacred music were encouraged
              • Angered the Puritans because they stressed outward forms of worship
                • Offended further by Laud's Book of Sports in 1633
                  • Allowed people to participate in traditional sports and pastimes on Sundays
                    • Puritans saw Sunday as a holy day of rest
                • Some Puritans appeased by the reduction in the number of sermons
            • Stained glass windows were to be insalled
              • Many accepted Laud's demands as they imposed fewer demands on those who attended Sunday services
              • Imposition of Laudianism
                • Visitations
                  • By the agents of bishops in their dioceses
                  • Personally reviewed by Laud and CI
                • Use of church courts
                  • Court of High Commission
                    • Trial of Bastwick, Burton and Prynne
                      • Rejected by many of the gentry for disrupting the "middle way"
                        • Attacks on Laud became a key feature of the Long Parliament (1640)
                        • Symbolized shift from Protestant to Catholic practices
                          • Threatened security of the CofE
                        • Political concerns: promoted those from "humble beginnings" - seen as taking their positions
                      • Smuggled anti-Arminian texts from abroad and published attacks on the bishops
                      • Ears mutilated; imprisoned for life
                        • Controversial: punishments seen as too harsh in proportion to their offences
                  • Many unable to accept the changes: left for the American colonies
                • Rejected by many of the gentry for disrupting the "middle way"
                  • Attacks on Laud became a key feature of the Long Parliament (1640)
                  • Symbolized shift from Protestant to Catholic practices
                    • Threatened security of the CofE
                  • Political concerns: promoted those from "humble beginnings" - seen as taking their positions
          • Before Laud
            • 1624: Montagu's attack on Calvinist doctrine - A New Gag for an Old Goose
            • 1626: Charles banned all discussion on sensitive religious doctrine: supported Arminian private worship over Puritan idea of preaching
        • From 1640 onwards
          • Laud arrested = Arminianism gone
          • Root and Branch Petition, December 1640
            • Attempted to remove the bishops
              • Abolition of episcopacy
            • Supported by many in the City of London
              • Related to religious grievances e.g. the feared encouragement of Catholicism
              • 15,000 signatures
              • Edward Hyde drew on widespread support to remove bishops from the PC and HOL
                • Overall attempt failed: HOL didn't want to remove themselves
              • Overall attempt failed: HOL didn't want to remove themselves
          • Introduction of Presbyterianism
            • 1645: gov't formally resolved that the gov't of the church should be Presbyterian in form
            • 1644: Westminster Assembly
              • Wanted to establish a Presbyterian national Church
              • 3rd January: presented with an Apologetical Narration
                • Appealed to the right to establish independent churches outside the national establishment
                  • Rejected: would open the way to other such developments
            • 1646: resolutions confirming the collapse of episcopacy and commitment to a form of Presbyterianism
            • A national Presbyterian Church ultimately failed
              • Growth of radicalism
      • The Restoration Church
        • 1660: the Convention p'ment re-restablished the CofE
        • 1660: restored bishops under the Worcester House Declaration
        • Details left to the Savoy House Conference
          • The Calaviers and bishops in the HOL ensured a high number of High Church Arminians were present
            • Gilbert Sheldon determined to re-establish RE uniformity on a Laudian model and to abolish non-conformity
              • 1663: became Archbishop of Canterbury
          • May 1661: decisions about belief, the Book of Common Prayer and clergy demands left in the hands of HC Arminians
        • Hopeful of a flexible national Church
        • 1662: Act of Uniformity
          • Imposed formality, rituals, priestly robes and episcopal control
            • So harsh: drove 1800 ministers of their livings
              • Would have to re-accept ordination: suggested their previous ministry was invalid
              • Would have to renounce the Covenant, to which they'd sword an oath of loyalty
              • Would have to 100% accept the Prayer Book
          • Restrictions on non-conformists
          • Clarendon Code
            • Corporation Act (1661)
            • Conventicle Act (1664)
              • First Conventicle Act had expired by 1667 = allowed dissent to grow again
            • Five Mile Act (1665)
      • The Interregnum and the Rump
        • 1650: intense and widespread Conservative reaction
          • Harsh Blasphemy Act (1650)
            • Persecuted radicals
            • Nayler case
              • One of those sent on the "Mission to the South" by Fox
              • 1656: seen riding a donkey into Bristol on Palm Sunday
                • Seen as a re=enactment of Christ's journey into Jerusalem
              • OC intervened: prevented him from being executed
        • Existence of radical groups
          • Mostly short lived, prone to interval dissent (aside from the Quakers)
          • Widespread desire for the restoration of religious and social discipline
          • Calvinist sects were able to meet
        • OC's desrire for religious toleration
          • Aim of a godly nation
          • Existence of radical groups
            • Mostly short lived, prone to interval dissent (aside from the Quakers)
            • Widespread desire for the restoration of religious and social discipline
            • Calvinist sects were able to meet
          • Wanted to encourage a "reformation of manners" = living morally virtuous lives with God
        • The Protectorate
          • Those who met outside the Church were largely kept in peace so long as they were discreet
            • Not harming others
              • Quakers were seen to to so: excluded from the 1650 Toleration Act, along with Catholics
          • The Church was placed under control of the Triers and Ejectors
            • Ensured its ministers were compotent, well-educated and able to preach the word of God
      • Reigns of Charles II and James I
        • Clarendon Code
          • Corporation Act (1661)
          • Conventicle Act (1664)
            • First Conventicle Act had expired by 1667 = allowed dissent to grow again
          • Five Mile Act (1665)
        • 1662: CI attempts to suspend the AOU and issue a first DOI
          • Defeated by bishops and Cavaliers
          • Failed: strength of anti-Puritan sect in p'ment
        • 1673-85: CII and Danby minimising the influence of Protestant disenters
          • 1673: Danby = Lord Treasurer
            • Allowed to renew persecutions of Protestant dissenters
              • Strengthened royal and Anglican authority - Tory policies
                • By 1685, the Anglican establishment was well and truly the Church of England (but not yet achieved the level of conformity desired)
            • Used patronage to build up majorities in the HOC and HOL
              • Strengthened royal and Anglican authority - Tory policies
                • By 1685, the Anglican establishment was well and truly the Church of England (but not yet achieved the level of conformity desired)
          • Remodelling of borough charters ensured Tory and Anglican control
          • 1672: Second Declaration of Indulgence
            • Tried to suspend persecuting laws and allowed dissenters to not attend Church whilst meeting with a license
          • 1667: fall of Clarendon
            • Establishment of the Cabal
              • 2/5 = Catholic. 1 near atheist and 1 with associations to moderate Puritanism
          • Establishment of dissent
            • Sympathy
            • Commitment
            • Mistakes from enemies

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