1.3 what are the processes of marine transport and deposition and what are the resultant landforms

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  • 1.3 what are the processes of marine transport and deposition and what are the resultant landforms
    • transport and deposition in the coastal zone
      • Longshore drift
        • progressively transports beach sediment along beach
        • caused by oblique approach of waves and consequently swash
          • followed by direct return of sea backwash
        • illustration pg 21 g3
        • concentration of tidal flow
          • produces tidal currents
            • important in transporting sediments
        • short term (day to day)
          • irregular
        • long term
          • has preferred direction
    • coastal sediment budget
      • illustration pg 42
    • landforms of coastal deposition
      • offshore bars
        • ridges of sand and or shingle developed offshore on a gently shelving coastline
        • submerged at high tide
        • lagoon lies between mainland and bar
      • bay head beaches
        • areas of sand or shingle beach occupying part of a bay bounded by projecting headlands
        • Barafundle Bay in pembrokeshire
      • barrier islands
        • 10-15% of worlds coastlines made of of these
        • particullarly common in low-mid lattitudes
        • factors common
          • gently sloping offshore gradient
          • limited tidal range
          • relatively high wave energy
        • East Coast of USA
          • deposits of silt and clay beneath the sand or shigle
        • illustration pg 59
      • barrier beach
        • spits grow across small bays eventually closing them in with complete sand ridges
        • slapton sands in devon
      • tombolo
        • spit joining an island to the mainland
        • town of LLANDUDNO, nORTH wales
          • built on a tombolo that links to the mainland with the great Orme, a former offshore island made of carboniferous limestone.
      • Hurst Castle Spit, Hampshire
        • spits
          • banks of sand and shingle projecting from  the shoreline into the sea
          • need supply of sediment from longshore drift
            • build them
            • maintain them
          • far end is hooked
            • formed from either:
              • wave refraction
              • local wave approach from a different direction
        • features a number of recurves (hooks)
      • spits
        • banks of sand and shingle projecting from  the shoreline into the sea
        • need supply of sediment from longshore drift
          • build them
          • maintain them
        • far end is hooked
          • formed from either:
            • wave refraction
            • local wave approach from a different direction
      • cuspate forlands
        • triangular shaped projection with apex pointing out to sea
        • vary in scale
        • Dungeness, Kent
          • fairly small scale-30km along kent coast, 15km into english channel
            • illustration pg56
        • larger scale
          • Cape Fear along Carolina coast, USA
            • reach 150 km
    • Sea-Level rises and deposition
      • sea level rises
        • create coastlines of submergance
        • eustatic rises in sea level
          • associated with glacial retreats and give rise to inundation of low lying areas by by the sea
        • estuaries are created
          • low tide exposes mudflats and deposited material
          • Mawddach estuary, mID WALES
            • INDENTATION IN THE COASTLINE, OFTEN FUNNEL SHAPED,that are infilling with sediment
          • illustration pg 69
          • Kent estuary, Cumbria
            • example of a depositional estuary
            • illustration pg70
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  • landforms of coastal deposition
    • offshore bars
      • ridges of sand and or shingle developed offshore on a gently shelving coastline
      • submerged at high tide
      • lagoon lies between mainland and bar
    • bay head beaches
      • areas of sand or shingle beach occupying part of a bay bounded by projecting headlands
      • Barafundle Bay in pembrokeshire
    • barrier islands
      • 10-15% of worlds coastlines made of of these
      • particullarly common in low-mid lattitudes
      • factors common
        • gently sloping offshore gradient
        • limited tidal range
        • relatively high wave energy
      • East Coast of USA
        • deposits of silt and clay beneath the sand or shigle
      • illustration pg 59
    • barrier beach
      • spits grow across small bays eventually closing them in with complete sand ridges
      • slapton sands in devon
    • tombolo
      • spit joining an island to the mainland
      • town of LLANDUDNO, nORTH wales
        • built on a tombolo that links to the mainland with the great Orme, a former offshore island made of carboniferous limestone.
    • Hurst Castle Spit, Hampshire
      • features a number of recurves (hooks)
    • cuspate forlands
      • triangular shaped projection with apex pointing out to sea
      • vary in scale
      • Dungeness, Kent
        • fairly small scale-30km along kent coast, 15km into english channel
          • illustration pg56
      • larger scale
        • Cape Fear along Carolina coast, USA
          • reach 150 km

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