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What's the difference between development and growth?
Growth- change in size or weight. Development- acquiring new skills and capabilities
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What are the 4 types of development?
Physical, Emotional, Intellectual and Social
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What measurements are taken of the baby at birth?
Head circumference, length and weight
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What measurements are taken of primary school children?
Head circumference, length, weight and foot size
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What measurements are taken of adults?
Head circumference, length, weight, foot size, waist size, hip width, leg length, arm length and bust length
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What does a percentile chart show?
Show the growth of a child. Entail the 10th, 50th and 90th
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What is conception?
The fertilisation of a woman's egg by a mans sperm to form a zygote
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What is arrested and delayed development?
Arrested development is when the foetus stops developing. Delayed development is when a foetus has not shown development within an expected time range.
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What are factors that can cause arrested or delayed development?
STIs, disease, stress, medication, drugs, smoking, drinking, genetic conditions, abuse and physical trauma
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What happens at 1-4 weeks of foetal development?
Fertilised egg leaves the Fallopian tube and enters the uterus. Then the cells from the egg form a blastocyst, this then burrows into the uterus lining. At 4 weeks the cells are now considered an embryo and the embryos outer cells form the placenta
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What happens at 5-8 weeks of foetal development?
It is considered a foetus at 6-7 weeks, as the brain, ears & eyes( &colour), face, hands, feet and major organs begin to develop, along with the heart starts to beat.
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What happens at 9-13 weeks of foetal development?
All organs and structures are formed. Baby will move around but the mother will not feel this.
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What happens at 14-20 weeks of foetal development?
Body and head of the foetus are now in proportion. Hair, eyelashes and eyebrows begin to grow.
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What happens at 21-24 weeks of foetal development?
Baby is covered in fine hair called lanugo. Mother will begin to feel baby's movements.
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What happens at 25-26 weeks of foetal development?
Baby moves/responds to touch an sound. Eyelids open for the first time.
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What happens at 27-29 weeks of foetal development?
Baby is covered in a white greasy substance called vermix.
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What happens at 30-31 weeks of foetal development?
Both languo and vermix disappear.
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What happens at week 32 of foetal development?
Baby will turn downwards in preparation for birth.
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What happens at 33-40 weeks of foetal development?
Head engages in the pelvis.
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What are fine and gross motor skills?
Fine motor skills are movements of small muscles (e.g. hands). Gross motor skills are movements of large muscles (e.g. legs)
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What are some examples of gross and fine motor skills of a child around 12 months?
G -The child should be able to stand alone, walk alone. F- be able to pick up, move & sort out toys.
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What are some examples of gross and fine motor skills of a 3 year old child?
G - Use pedals on a tricycle. F - Build a tower of cubes
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What are some examples of gross and finer motor skills of an 8 year old?
G -Take part in sport. F- Draw detailed pictures.
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What is adolescence?
Stage in which a young person changes from a child to an adult, due to the occurrence of puberty.
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What is puberty?
Period of rapid growth in which young people reach sexual maturity, and become biologically able to reproduce and gain their secondary sex characteristics.
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What are the hormones produced by males and females?
Males produce testosterone. Females produce oestrogen and progesterone.
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When do males and female usually start puberty?
Females - 11-13 years. Males - 13-15 years.
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What are the male primary sex characteristics?
Enlargement of penis and testes. Spontaneous erections due to blood flow in chambers. Production of spermatozoa.
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What are the female secondary sex characteristics?
Beats develop and areola swells & taken. Grow armpit and pubic hair. Redistribution of body fat which causes the hips to widen.
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What are the male secondary sex characteristics?
Changes in the larynx causes the voice to deepen. Growth of armpit, pubic and facial hair. Redistribution of muscle tissue and fat.
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What are the female primary sex characteristics?
Uterus enlarges and vagina lengthens. Ovaries begin to release eggs. Menstrual cycle commences.
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How do you physically develop in Early Adulthood (19-45) ?
Reach their peak physical performance, and their max height and weight at 19-28. Reaction time and manual dexterity is at its peak.
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What happens during Pregnancy and Lactation?
Oestrogen and Progesterone levels are high then a woman fall pregnant, in order support the baby. Hips widen, belly grows, breasts grow (areola swells and darkens) and body pats begin to swell.
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What is Perimenopause and what happens during this?
When a woman in in her 40s her oestrogen levels begin to drop, stopping the production of eggs. Lasts until menopause commences. Perimenopause is usually around a 4 year process.
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What are symptoms of Perimenopause?
Hot flushes. Vaginal dryness. Mood swings. Night sweats. Breast tenderness. Loss of libido (sex drive). Fatigue. Urinal urgency. Urinating when coughing/sneezing. Trouble sleeping.
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Why is it hard to get pregnant during Middle Adulthood (45-65) ?
Fertility reduces dring middle adulthood (Menopause) and therefore theres a higher chance of miscarriage and other pregnancy complications.
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What is Menopause and what happens during this?
End of menstrual cycle and egg production. Increase in hormones called Gonadotrophins, these cause hot flushes and irritation. Shrinking of sex organ.
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What are the effects of ageing? "Getting Old"
Loss of elasticity in the skin. Natural weight gain. Loss of muscle tone and strength. Greying and thinning of hair and hair loss.
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What physical developmental problems occur during Later Adulthood (65+) ?
Become more susceptible to disease. Loose height due to posture and compression of spinal disks. Osteoporosis. Loss of strength, vision and hearing. Mobility becomes more difficult. Poor dexterity. Shrinkage and/or loss of nerve cells in the brain.
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What intellectual developmental problems occur during Later Adulthood (65+) ?
Parkinsons, Alzheimers and Dementia are more common. Loss of brain nerve cells. More forgetful.
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What are the 5 aspects of Intellectual Development?
1) Language Development. 2) Abstract thoughts and creativity. 3) Problem solving. 4) Memory. 5)Moral Development.
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How do you intellectually develop during Infancy and Childhood?
Children learn lots of new skills. Bring is at its peak performance at the age of 2. Speech and language improve for communication. Language development begins at birth and develops rapidly.
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What did Piaget's model do/conclude?
She is a developmental psychologist that studied how children acquire the ability to think. She concluded that children think differently to adults.
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What is Abstract Logical Thinking?
Solve problems with imagination and not even have to be involved.
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What is Egocentric Thinking?
Not being able to see a situation through someone else's eyes.
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What is Concrete Logical Thinking?
Solve problems by being able to se or physically handle the issues involved.
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What is Equilibrium?
A state of cognitive balance when a child can understand things they have experienced.
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What is Disequilibrium?
A state of cognitive imbalance between experience and what is understood.
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What is Accommodation?
Modifying schemas in relation to new information and experiences.
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What re Piaget's 4 stages of intellectual development?
Sensorimotor ( birth - 2). Preoperational (2-7). Concrete Operational (7-11). Formal Operational (11-18)
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What is Sensorimotor development ( birth-2 yrs) ?
Infants interact using their hands, eyes, ears and mouth. Piaget believes a abby would not have a way of remembering and thinking about the world until around 18 months.
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What is Preoportional development (2-7) ?
Children use symbols to show their earlier discoveries. Development of language and make- believe play. Piaget velvets children at tis age cannot understand *** numbers, mass or volume work.
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What is Concrete Operational development (7-11) ?
Children can understand logical principles, such as height and age.
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What is Formal Operational development (11-18) ?
Capacity of abstract thinking allows adolescents to reason with symbols that rent objects, such as advanced maths. Think of outcomes to scientific problems. Think through complicated ideas in their heads without physical images.
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What is a schema?
A category of knowledge as well as the process of acquiring knowledge. (e.g thinking that something is a cow just because it has 4 legs or learning that just because something can fly doesn't mean its a bird)
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What is conservation?
When you're aware that just because seething s appearance changes doesn't mean the quantity has changed. (e.g. 3 10p coins = 30p and 2 5p + 1 20p = 30p)
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How can Piaget' model be criticised?
Its based on a small number of children. Bruner believes with adult support, children can develop at faster speeds and at a higher level. Learning amy be due to their environment and education not on maturity. Doesn't consider learning difficulties.
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What does Chomsky's model show/conclude?
He believed that the ability to learn a sign or spoken language was already preprogrammed into us before birth, and all individuals have the ability to understand and use the same language.
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What is Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device (LAD) ?
A device that children are born with that programmes them to acquire language, in the same way that they aquire the skills to walk and stand. Says that language has to be learnt through maturation not juts surely imitation.
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What are criticisms of Chomsky?
Lacks scientific evidence. Bruner argues early social interactions have more influence than Chomsky suggests. Ignores children with learning difficulties. Focuses more on grammar rather than sentence meaning.
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What did John Bowlby theorise/say?
That a child's emotional, intellectual and social development is affected by their attachment with their mother. He said that children experience distress when separated from their mothers and when fed by others, the child's anxiety remains.
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What are the cognitive development factors during Early Adulthood (19-45) ?
Considering issues in a realistic manner. Taking a pragmatic approach to problems. Being independent. Develop abstract thinking skills. Have expert knowledge from experience.
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What is emotional literacy?
Being able to understand and describe emotions
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Whats the difference between empathy and sympathy?
Empathy is when you "put yourself in someone else's shoes". empathy is when you can relate to someone's situation due to an experience of your own.
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What's an attachment and at what age did Bowlby say these need to occur ?
An attachment is an emotional bond between two people, e.g. mother and child. A child needs to form an attachment during their 'Critical Period' - this being from birth up until the age of 2 years.
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What is self-image and self-esteem?
Self-image is how an individuals sees themselves. Self-esteem is how an individual feels about themselves.
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What is maternal deprivation?
When a child is removed/separated from their mother.
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What are social releasers?
'cute' behaviours which trigger the mothers attachment system. (awwww)
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What are criticisms of Bowlby's theory?
Rutter argued maternal deprivation will not cause long term problems but privation (no opportunity to form attachment) will. Attachment is said to be a learned programme but Bowlby says its pre-programmed.
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What is stranger anxiety and separation anxiety?
Stranger anxiety is a child's response to the arrival of a stranger (fear). Separation anxiety is distress caused by being separated from a carer (lots of comfort needed by child upon return to carer).
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What are factors affecting development?
Disability. Prematurity. Pot-natal depression. Emotional Unavailability. Separation. Foster Care/Adoption.
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What is Solo Play (0-2 years) ?
Playing on there own and discovering the environment at their own pace.
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What is Parallel Play (2-3 years) ?
Playing with other children, but not interacting. Playing alone by alongside others.
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What is Co-operative Play (3-8 years) ?
Widening social networks and forming relationships.
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How does an Infant (0-2 years) socially develop?
Smiling at human faces and recognising/responding to adult speech. Can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar faces at 5 months. Form attachments to cares. Parallel play with other children.
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How does a Child (3-8 years) socially develop?
Learn social roles and behaviour within their family context. Co-operate play with other children. Build friendships through trust, friendships increasing in value awards adolescence.
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How does an Adolescent (9-18 years) socially develop?
Self-worth more influenced by peers than family. Have to deal with sexuality/sex hormones during puberty.
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How does an Adult (19-65 years) socially develop?
Friendship networks are important still. Forming intimate partnerships, leading to marriage and parenthood. Have to split time and sacrifice things to benefit others. Pressures of family (etc.) are said to reduce social activity in Middle Adulthood.
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How does an individual in Later Adulthood (65 years +) socially develop?
Following retirements, people have more time to make friendships and hobbies, pastimes, and travel. Increase contact with family and close friends and keep social circle small.
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How is independence gained during Middle Adulthood?
Earning an income. Living alone. Paying bills. Sacrificing spare time for children or work. Likely to reach career peak. Travel.
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What aspects of peer pressure can have an impact on social development?
Drugs, smoking and alcohol abuse. Relationships. ho you're friendships. What you wear. Sexual relations. Ignoring parents. Defying rules and regulations. Dangerous activities.
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What is an informal relationship?
Between family, friends, intimate partners.
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What is a formal relationship?
Betweens colleagues, teacher & pupils, authority figures.
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What are situations inn which independence may be lost?
Prison. Trauma. Controlling relationships. Illness. Financial issues. Old age.
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What affect does losing independence have?
Cause depression, frustration, sadness, loss of dignity and embarrassment.
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How is independence gained through Infancy and Childhood?
Dressing themselves, bushing their teeth, organising themselves, nursery/school.
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How is independence gained through Adolescence?
Choose friends and relationships, technology,learning to drive, going out alone.
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How is independence gained through Adulthood?
Starting a family, leaving home, starting employment.
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What is the difference between Nature and Nurture?
Nature- genetic inheritance and other biological factors. Nurture- social and environmental factors that have an impact.
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What impact does an individuals 'Nature' have on them?
Skin tone, eye colour, body shape, hair colour.
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What impact does an individuals 'Nurture' have on them?
Personality, mental health issues, mannerisms, emotions, language
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What research supports the Nature debate?
Bowlby's theory of attachment is a biological perspective of development. Chomsky's proposal that language is learnt through an LAD is also a biological perspective.
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What was Gesell's development of the Nature debate?
Observed a large number of children to see what skills & abilities children have during certain age groups. Found that children move through millstones at their own pace and therefore development is undetermined and the environment had little impact
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What are criticisms of Gesell?
His theory is not helpful in explaining individual or cultural difference in children. Doesn't consider children with learning disabilities.
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What is positive reinforcement?
When a behaviour is repeated due to personal satisfaction (intrinsic reinforcement) or rewards (extrinsic reinforcement).
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What is negative reinforcement?
When a behaviour is not repeated in order to avoid an adverse experience, such as being told off
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How does Bandura say a child learns a behaviour?
The child observes a behaviour. The child internalises the behaviour by remembering it. They may not copy but wait until the opportunity occurs to repeat the behaviour. Depending on the reinforcement the child will repeat or desist the behaviour.
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*** does Bandura's Social Learning Theory (Bobo Doll Experiment) support the Nurture debate?
It shows that environmental factors can influence child to behave in a certain way.
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What is the Stress-Diathesis Model?
Explains how stress due to life events can affect impact their mental wellbeing. Some children are born with genetic predispositions to mental illness referred to as diathesis. Stress may trigger these predispositions.
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Criticism of evidence that supports Nurture debate?
Bandoras experiment and the stress diathesis model do not provide answers as to whether development through life is due to nature or nurture.
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Describe the the disease Cancer.
Over 200 types. Due to abnormal cells reproducing. Over 40% of them can be avoided by changing lifestyle. Some are more at risk due to inheriting gene faults. Fault DOES NOT mean future generations will definiaty get cancer.
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What are some causes of Cancer?
Smoking. Alcohol abuse. High fat/sugar diet. Lack of exercise. Sun exposure. Asbestos (dust).
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Describe the condition Type 1 Diabetes.
Diagnosed early, onsets at a young age. Insulin dependent. Strong predisposition. Greater risk if either of both biological parents suffer.
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Describe the condition Type 2 Diabetes.
Onsets at a later, maturer age. Environment and lifestyle have a large impact of developing T2 D.
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What are the problems with having high blood cholesterol levels?
Builds up in artery walls and lead to heart disease and other CV diseases. Used by lack of exercise, smoking, fatty/sugary diet. Can be inherited through Hypercholesterolemia. Can lead to heart problems if untreated..
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What is a pollutant?
A substance that contaminates something, such as air and water, and makes it unsafe.
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What are respiratory disorders?
Conditions affecting the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alevoli, pleura and pleural cavity.
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What are cardiovascular problems?
Any disorder or disease that affects the heart or blood vessels.
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What do health & social care services do?
Support individuals with their additional needs.
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What characteristics are found in authoritative parents?
Mutual love and respect, self-controlledchildren with high -self-esteem.
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What are authoritative parents?
Demanding and supportive parents.
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What are authoritarian parents?
Demanding but unsupportive parents.
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What are permissive parents?
Undemanding yet supportive parents.
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What are disengaged parents?
Undemanding and unsupportive parents.
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What characteristics are found in authoritarian parents?
Parental authority is controlling, children have poor self-esteem and social skills.
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What characteristics are found in permissive parents?
Parents are indulgent. Children are self-confident, impulsive and tend to have difficulties with friendships.
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What characteristics are found in disengaged parents?
Parents are neglectful and the attachment between parent and child are poor. Children have low confidence and self-esteem and tend to hide their emotions.
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What are the 4 types of bullying?
Verbal, Cyber, Physical and Emotional
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What are some long term affects of bullying?
Poor achievement, substance abuse, self-harm, increased risk of suicide and difficulties forming relationships.
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What are some short term affects of bullying?
stress, anxiety, inability to cope with life events, poor self image, low self esteem, eating disorders and withdrawal from school/work/activities.
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What is an example of a physical transition / life event?
Moving employment, moving house and moving school.
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What is an example of a physiological transition / life event?
Puberty, having a baby, injury , health conditions and illness
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What is an example of a emotional transition / life event?
Starting a family, bereavement, marriage and divorce
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What is an example of a intellectual transition / life event?
University, promotions, redundancy
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What does the Holmes-Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) measure?
Shows the correlation between psychological illness and stressful events.
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What are economic factors?
All aspects of life that relate to money.
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Card 2

Front

What are the 4 types of development?

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Physical, Emotional, Intellectual and Social

Card 3

Front

What measurements are taken of the baby at birth?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What measurements are taken of primary school children?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What measurements are taken of adults?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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