Propaganda and indoctrination

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  • Created by: Muy
  • Created on: 22-04-13 17:15

Aims and methods

Goebbels - 'propaganda was our sharpest weapon in conquering the state' , Hitler believed it could convince the masses to unit behind Nazi rule... It was used to creat Volsgeimeinschaft

Propaganda was overt e.g. posters or covert such as Nazis manipulation of education

Ministry of Popular Englightenment and Propaganda - led by Goebbels, it propagated censorhips, control of news, pro Nazi messages via radio/posters, rallies and spectacles to demonstrate discipline, annual Nazi Party Nuremberg Rally became a showcase 

Ministry of Propaganda have 7 suc chambers, it oversaw the press, radio, film, literature, threatre, music and fine arts

Combat league for German culture sought to influence German culture

1936 Berlin Olympics - invented the olympic torch frame relay, anti-semetic propaganda was toned down, vagrants removed, superiority of Aryan race was boosted by Germany winning many golds

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Methods of propaganda

Mass suggesstion - Nuremberg rallies and public speeches tried to create an emotional response from the audience, identification and a sense of belonging e.g. uniformed party members, sounds and lighting

Marches/parades were common, they created impression of order/discipline - the image that Nazi party was restoring law and order (see Reich Chancellery)

Participation - wanted people to identify with the regime through organisations that promoted Nazi values e.g. Hitler Youth, and other indoctrination such as Nazi sports club

Censorship - Nazi publishing organisations replaces communist newspapers, newspaper editors were accountable to Propaganda Ministry, editors/journalists were in Reich Press Chambers, DNB gave guidelines on what newspapers should print, created impressions of media remaining independant (Goebbels allow Franfurter Zietung newspapers) to publish criticisms of the regime, newspaper sales declines as it became repititive

Radio - promotion of cheap radios, 70% of households owned one by 39, Hitler speeches were broadcast, Nazi approved music was played, spoken word was more effective than written and it displayed Hitlers charisma, Reich Radio Company controlled radio, widely used in schools/work place etc. making propaganda accessable into peoples home

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Methods of propaganda #2

Education was used for children - teachers encouraged to join National Social Teachers League putting them on political indocrtination courses, children encourages to snith of Nazi critcising teachers to gestapo, Jewish/left wing teachers sacked, Education Ministry approved of books, curriculum altered to reflect Nazi ideology e.g. Lebensraum taught in geography, nation pride reinforced through studying traditional German literature, Maths illustrated with reference to Nazi beliefs, military style physical activity for boys 

The arts - Weimar Republic pop culture was generate/weak, eliminated arts that went against Nazi ideals such as Jazz and Jewish composers, Hitler favoured Wagner whose operas had heroic German themes, Wagner was anti semetic, Goebbels regarding cinemas provided entertainment w/ only 14% have overt political tones, Films had propaganda messages still

Propaganda merely helped build on peoples exiting ideas/prejuidices e.g. Jews, it didnt create a unified Volsgeimeinschaft nation as such, not everyone was indoctrinated, excessive propaganda was off putting w/ newspaper sales declining, youth were most at risk of indoctrination, violence may have been a bigger factor than propaganda

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Fuhrer Myth

It provided legitmacy/stability of Nazi government, and built on Hitlers appeal

It satisfied peoples needs for a strong government and allowed Nazis to claim Hitlers personal legitimacy as 'the leader' rested on the will of the people

Fuhrer myth gave credibility to priciple of authoritarian leadership as Hitler was portrayed as a sole protector of Germany... At times of national crisis he could claim  he had been the supreme judge of the German people i.e. Night of the long Knives

Goebbels believed people had to believe in Hitler as the saviour to support the regime, he thus created an image 'a cult of personality'

Image of Hitler - surpreme ledader of a new Germany, devoted to the service of Germany, political genius, man of strength and deterination (contrast to leadrs of Weimar Republic), stood above fray of politics, defender of traditional values, embodiment of peoples will

Realistic image of Hitler - far from dedicating himself to the cause of his nation (often on holiday, lazy, lying in bad), indecisive - he often didnt make decisions, not responsible for some successes e.g. Economics ministers managed economic recovery from 33-35

Creation of image - Goebbels oraganised events suchs as Potsdam, after Night of the Long Knives propaganda depicted Hitler as defending Germany from extremists, in posters he rsembled Jesus and other media promoted his cult of personality, events like his birthday reinforced his importance

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Economic miracle

Propgaganda empthasised the economic achievements of the reigime e.g. 'Autarky' or economic self sufficiency

Claimed standards of living have improved, 'Strength through Joy' promoted this idea with organised leisure activities for workers

'Beauty of work' improved appearance of German workplaces, the Volkswagen car or 'Peoples radio reciever' used as propaganda evidence to prove higher standards of living

Reality - umemployment figures understates (3 mil in 36), Nazis took credit for some successful investment prokects launched by the former Chancellor Bruning, economic recovery began before Nazis administration, work conditions/hours detoriated and most didnt benefit from 'Strength through joy' programmmes, Nazis began favouring industry over agriculture, Atuarky was never achieved as 33% of raw materials were imported, target for economic growth not met, small businesses couldnt compete with big department stores

Volkswagon plan failed, it was marketed as affordable, mass produced vehicles Germans could buy, instead it only became popular after WW2

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