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Relative Isotopic Mass is the mass of an atom
of an isotope compared with one twelfth of
the mass of an atom of Carbon-12
Relative Atomic Mass is the weighted mean
mass of an atom of an element compared with
one twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-
Amount of Substance and Mole
Amount of substance is the quantity measured in mols. Chemists use "amount of
substance" as a means of counting atoms.
The Avogadro constant is the number of atoms per mole of carbon-12 isotope.
A mole; is the amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are in
exactly 12 g of the carbon 12 isotope
Molar Mass, M, is the mass per mol of a substance. The units are g mol -1
Empirical Formula and Molar Volume
The empirical formula is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of
each element present in a compound.
The molecular Formula is the actual number of atoms of each element in a
The volume per mole of gas. It can be
calculated using the formulas on the left.
Concentration of a solution means the
amount of solute, in mol, dissolved per
HSO Sulphuric acid
HCL Hydrochloric acid
HNO Nitric Acid
HCOOH Methanoic Acid
Citric acid C H O
When an acid is added to water the acid releases H+ ions (protons) into the
solution. The H+ ion in acids is responsible for all acid reactions
An Acid is a species that is a
Metal Oxides MgO (used to cure indigestion), CuO
Metal Hydroxides NaOH, Mg(OH)
Ammonia NH, Amines CHNH
Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH) Lime for treating acid soils
A Base is a species that is a proton acceptor
Bases neutralize acids.
An Alkali is a type of base that dissolves in water forming OH- ions
A base readily accepts H+ ions to form an acid
Sodium Hydroxide NaOH
Potassium Hydroxide KOH