Youth-B672

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  • Created by: Begumf
  • Created on: 16-10-16 15:57
What did Phillip Aries (1962) argue?
Childhood was invented in the middle ages, before that, at the age of 6, children became 'miniature adults'
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What is the Butler act and when did it come out?
Children have to go to school till the age of 15 (1944)
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What is the education act and when did it come out?
boys and girls have to learn the same curriculum (1988)
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Give an example of Phillip Aries' theory of the changing of status of children
In the 1700s, the status of children was low as they learnt craft and trade like older males. However, in 2009 the status of children was high as they had more freedom because they could work and get married(with parent's consent) at the age of 16
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What did Walter Miller say is the reason why adolescence join gangs?
(1958) Felt that adolescence is a time when young people often feel lonely and unsure of themselves, as a result they feel the need to belong. So, they join gangs for a sense of belonging.
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What did Albert Cohen say is the reason why adolescence join gangs?
(1955) Some of the working class children in the USA fail to succeed in school, and have very little social status. Out of resentment they join a gang with different norms & values to the society theyre familiar with. Status Frustration
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What did Williamson say is the reason why adolescence join gangs?
(1797) Because of social networking, so that they can make friends and be part of a group of friends rather than being focused on illegal activities
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What did Stan Cohen say is the reason why adolescence join gangs?
(1972) Because of Moral Panic. Gangs are partly medias creation. Media has labelled young people as delinquent and its so frequent that it becomes a self fulfilling prophecy
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Define Gang
Street based young people, who see themselves as a group, usually engage in criminal activity, have some form of membership and hierarchy, are usually in conflict with other gangs and have an identifying feature
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Give 6 reasons why people join gangs
Status frustration, Money, Sense of belonging, Protection, Boredom, Peer pressure,
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Give 4 examples of gangs
Yardies. Mafia, Columbian Cartel, Crips&Blood
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Name 5 key aspects of a gang
Delinquent subculture, Territory, Hierarchy, Loyalty, Membership
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Who were McRobbie and Garber?
feminist researchers that developed the term 'bedroom subculture', they said girls in the bedroom subculture discussed boys+music and experimented with hair and makeup
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Give 4 reasons why subcultures have increased
Growth of affluence, Growth of internet, Leaving age of school has risen, More freedom to express yourself
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What is identity?
the way you see yourself and others see you, CAGE affects your identity
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Give 5 aspects, other than CAGE, of an individuals identitiy
-Behavior/norms -Dress and style -Music -Leisure activities -roles in society
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Give examples of positive sanctions our peers use
-Praise -Compliments -Inclusion -higher status -secrets
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Why are adolescence more likely to face peer pressure than adults, give 5 reasons
-Not as much freedom, -Vulnerability, -Hormones, -Time of discovery, -Spend more time with peers than family, -No responsibility=more easily persuaded
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Give examples of negative sanctions our peers use
-Dirty looks, -Criticism, -Exclusion, -Ridicule, -Rumors, -Bullying
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KEY INDIVIDUAL:who faced peer pressure and negative sanctions
Amanda Todd- Canadian girl who committed suicide as she was blackmailed into 'flashing' via webcam. After that, she faced negative sanctions such as: Threats, Humiliation, Violence from her peers, which lead to suicide
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Give an example of a rite of passage involving males
Satere-Mawe Tribe-> Initiation of the ants at the age of 12 in the Amazon. 11hr ritual where boys stick their hands in ant infested gloves 20 times for 10mins each to prove they're true indians, and they're worthy of adult roles
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Give an example of a rite of passage involving females
Aeoria Tribe->Suri Lip Plate at around the ages of 13-14 in Ethiopia, Girls have their bottom two teeth knocked out and lip pierced and stretched to fit a clay plate to show they're ready for marriage. The bigger the lip plate, the more cattle D
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Define Subculture
a smaller culture within a culture with its own set of norms,values and identity
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Give 5 examples of subcultures
Goths, Emos, Punks, Skinheads, Gangs, Bedroom subculture
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Give 6 reasons why people join subcultures
Shared interests, Status frustration, Sense of belonging, Peer pressure, Solution to problems,Protection, To express themselves
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Who was J.Clarke
Sociologist who developed the term 'Skinheads', said Skinheads acted the way they did to let out frustration of being poor
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What are 2 biological differences between youth and adults?
Physical, Emotional
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Give an example that shows youth is socially constructed
Saudi Arabia-> common for children to get married before age of 13 UK-> average age of marriage is between 27-30
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Define rites of passage
a ritual event, that is universal, that marks a persons progress in transition, usually from adolescence to adulthood, and happens in cultures all over the world
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What are 3 similarities between rites of passage?
1- All mark a change 2-All mark a transition in life 3-Considered to have a higher status afterwards
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Define Social control
methods used during socialisation to ensure people conform to expected norms and values of society
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What are the two types of social control?
Formal and Informal
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What if formal social control? Give examples
When an official organisation, such as the government, try and stop you from breaking the law e.g police, government, army, judges
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What is informal social control? Give examples
Can be carried out by anyone in society, methods to try and make people conform to norms of society e.g. Peers Education Religion Family Media..
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What are the arguments of youth being a biological construction?
All youth go through hormonal changes at puberty, at this time they experience changes in both their attitude and behavior, many young people go through times of being irritable & unsure of themselves
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What are the arguments of youth being a social construction?
LAW-In different societies, the rights and responsibilities of young people differ, SOCIAL NORMS-customs and duties of young people differ across societies
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What did Margeret Mead(1927) argue?
Whilst adolescence can often be emotional & confusing, this is not the case in every society,e.g Samoan young people did not have this period of turmoil
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Define Childhood
ages between 3 and 13, when you are seen as having no responsibility, as innocent and needing protection and are free to play
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Define Loss of innocence
the belief that children are growing up too fast and becoming aware of adult issues early
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Define disappearance of childhood
Postman's view that the age in which the young have little worry or responsibility is being eroded
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What did Neil Postman(1983) argue?
that there is currently a disappearance of childhood and because of the messages children see in the mass media they become 'confused little adults'. He called these children 'tweenagers'.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the Butler act and when did it come out?

Back

Children have to go to school till the age of 15 (1944)

Card 3

Front

What is the education act and when did it come out?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example of Phillip Aries' theory of the changing of status of children

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Walter Miller say is the reason why adolescence join gangs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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