What is haematocrit and what are its normal margins?
Ratio of RBC volume: total volume. 30-70%
1 of 165
haemoglobin levels (Hb)
men: 130-180g/L. women: 115-165g/L
2 of 165
mean cell volume
10x (hameatocrit/RBC count). normal range 76-100FL
3 of 165
mean cell haemoglobin
average mass of haemaglobin/cell. Haemoglobinx10/RBC. normal range 26-32 pico grams
4 of 165
mean cell haemaglobin [..]
5 of 165
2-4 micrometers. 7-14 day lifespan
6 of 165
blood group A
B antibodies, A antigens
7 of 165
blood group B
A antibodies, B antigens
8 of 165
blood group AB
no antibodies, AB antigens
9 of 165
blood group O
AB antibodies, no antigens
10 of 165
Myeloid cell>BFU>CFU>pro-erythroblast>erythroblast>normoblast>reticulocyte>RBC. normoblast Denucleated by macrophages. GATA-1 and EPO
11 of 165
myeloid>megakaryocyte>platelet. GATA-1 and TPO
12 of 165
myeloid?CFU-GM>promyleocyte>myelocyte>neutrophil. Monocytes form from CFU. Requires PU1, G-CSF and c/EMPa
13 of 165
what stimulates EPO release?
low O2 tension in PCT
14 of 165
causes of iron deficiency anaemia (microcytic, hypochromic anaemia)
diet, malabsorption, bleeding, menzes, pregnancy, worms, GI bleed.
15 of 165
macrocytic anaemia with ataxia and dementia
B12/folate deficiency. Caused by diet/alcohol. serum B12, folate and Schilling test
16 of 165
macrocytic and haemolytic anaemia?
pernicious anaemia (no IF from stomach= no binding for absorption in terminal ileum)
17 of 165
acute drop in haemoglobin
acute bleeding, rapid haemolysis, poisoning and chronic
18 of 165
mild macrocytic normachromic and leukoerythroblastic film.
bone marrow failure
19 of 165
normacytic normachromic anaemia with B12 deficiency
liver failure. alcohol suppresses marrow and causes bleeding
20 of 165
causes of haemolytic anaemia
sickle cell, autoimmune, malaria, hereditary spherocytosis
21 of 165
normacytic normachromic anaemia and raised renal creatinine
22 of 165
raised ferritin, raised ESR and CRP with mild microcytic anaemia
Inflammatory cause (cancer, rheumatoid arthiritis, TB. HIV, osteomyelitis, endocarditis
23 of 165
what causes increased O2 dissociation from haem?
Increased temp and DPG, reduced pH
24 of 165
types of haem in adult haem?
2 alpha, 2 delta
25 of 165
what is the bohr affect?
lactic acid produced by anaerobic respiration reduces blood pH, increasing oxygen dissociation.
26 of 165
what causes sickle cell?
recessivemutation in B globin gene turning glutamic acid into valine
27 of 165
consequences of sickle cell?
haem structure collaplses. RBC becomes fibrous, insoluble and sticky, carrying less O2 and blocking vessels, causing tissue infarction.
28 of 165
alpha: deletion/mutation in HBA1/2. four levels of condition. Beta: mutation/deletion in HBB gene
29 of 165
in alpha thalassaemia, what do 3 mutation cause?
micro, hypo hameolytic anaemia and jaundice.
30 of 165
red blood cells?
6-8 micrometers, about 5,000,000/microleter
31 of 165
first degree heart block?
enhanced PR interval. block before/at AV node
32 of 165
2nd heart block (m type 1)
PR interval increases until skipping. Blockage above/below His.
33 of 165
2nd heart block (m type 2)
no elongation, sudden skipping. Blockage at His/purkinje. Need pacemaker
34 of 165
extended QRS and P replaces R. ventricular pacemaker
35 of 165
few QRS complexes, sawtooth P waves.
36 of 165
P waves irregular, QRS infequent. Atrial discharge at 300-600bpm
37 of 165
Ventricular ectopic beats
His not conducting., v fib, wonky QRS complex.
38 of 165
loss of effective v contraction. endless sawtoothing.
39 of 165
order of septation in the developing heart?
at 4 weeks, partial septum forms AV canals. Primary septum separated atria, secondary septum forms foramen ovale. Aortic pul septum causes aorta and pul. artery to twist around each other.Atrio ventricular septum forms
40 of 165
what is tetralogy of Fallot?
congenital pulmonary stenosis, overriding aorta, ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy.
41 of 165
what are the zones of the kidney and what do they produce
ZG: aldosterone. ZF: cortisol and androgens. ZR: cortisol and androgens. medulla: adrenaline
42 of 165
what is Cushing's syndrome?
chronic excess cortisol caused by a pituitary tumour. Weight gain, moon face epidermis atrophy, hypertension, muscle weakness
43 of 165
what are trisomies 13 and 18?
13: Patau's, 18: Edward's.
44 of 165
what is reciprocal translocation?
two chromasomes 'swap ends'
45 of 165
difference between nonsense and missense mutations?
nonsense: change in frame results in premature stop codon. Missense: change in one AA for another in the sequence.
46 of 165
what diseases can a FGFR3 mutation cause?
Thanatophoric dysplasia, achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia
47 of 165
what is the result of Haemophilia A+B mutations?
factors VIII and XI deficiency
48 of 165
what is Lyon's hypothesis?
only one X gene is active at a time in one cell
49 of 165
which follicle is arrested at prophase diplotene?
50 of 165
which follicle is arrested at metaphase II before puberty?
pre-ovulatory phase follicle
51 of 165
what hormones are secreted from Paraventricular cells via anterior pituitary?
TSH, FSH, LH, prolactin, ACTH and GH
52 of 165
what hormones are secreted from supraoptic via posterior pituitary?
53 of 165
what hormones are secreted from magnocellular via posterior pituitary?
54 of 165
what does the hypothalamus secrete to get anterior pituitary to release hormones?
TRH GnRH CRH GHRH Dopamine and Somatostatin
55 of 165
what can happen to a Spermatogonium A up to 16 days after creation as part of the spermatogenic cycle?
56 of 165
what is present in extracellular fluid in sertoli cells to aid sperm development?
Androgen binding protein and testosterone
57 of 165
what are the WHO normal sperm statistics?
***** volume: 1.5ml. [sperm]: 15x10 6. total motility: 40%. progressive motility: 32%. normal morphology: 4%. vitality: 58%
58 of 165
what is the window of fertility?
6 days: five days preovulation, one day ovulation.
59 of 165
what is the period of human development?
38 weeks and two days
60 of 165
what is parity?
the number of foetus' given birth above 24 weeks GA.
61 of 165
what is capacitation?
sperm aquire ability to fertilise. Removal from sperm plasma membrane of glycoproteins and sterol groups.
62 of 165
what is activation?
sperm 'whiplash' gaining motility. Plasma membrane breaks down to release hydrolyric enzymes (acrosome reaction).;
63 of 165
describe the myometrium layers
two layers of longitudinal muscle sandwich a circular muscle layer
64 of 165
what is high oestrogens effect on C. mucus?
thin, watery, high spinnbarkeit
65 of 165
what is high progesterones effect on C. mucus?
thick and viscous.
66 of 165
what is ectropion?
cervix rolls out after birth. simple columnar epithelium rolls out, exposed to bleeding and inflammation. undergoes metaplastic change over time.
67 of 165
what glycoprotein does sperm bind to at the zona pellucida?
68 of 165
in what layers are the muscle layers of the stomach from lumen outwards?
Oblique, circular, longitudinal
69 of 165
what is the function of interstitial cells of Cajal?
intrinsic pacemaker generating slow wave impulses
70 of 165
which spincters contract/relax spincters?
alpha: contract. beta: relax.
71 of 165
reduces acid secretion (D cells)
72 of 165
increases bicarbonate reduces acid (S cells)
73 of 165
increase enzyme release and gall bladder contraction (I cells)
74 of 165
what does H. Pylori secrete?
ammonia, cytotoxin associated gene A, vasculating cytotoxin A
75 of 165
what innervates parotid gland?
76 of 165
what innervates sublingual and submandibular glands
77 of 165
what is given for alcohol withdrawal symptoms?
78 of 165
when would you get Mallory body formation?
79 of 165
what are Kaupffer cells?
phagocytes in the liver that destroy undigestible particles.
80 of 165
what are stellate cells?
pericytes with immune function which absorb vit A and fat
81 of 165
what is the gonadostat hypothesis of puberty?
reduced sensitivity to steroid hormone affect on the negative feedback on FSH/LH
82 of 165
what is the maturation of CNS hypothesis of puberty?
GnRH neurones in pituitary mature, stimulated by achieving critical body weight (47kg girls, 55kg boys, 22%body weight). GnRH also stimulated by Leptin/Kissleptin
83 of 165
which enzyme rises rapidly at the start of puberty?
84 of 165
maturation before age 8 or menstruation 10.
85 of 165
what happens to the devleoping trachea at 7 weeks?
tracheooesophageal septum forms. Narrow lumen is recanalised.
86 of 165
where does the pancreatic buds form from?
caudal foregute>duodenum>ventral/distal buds.
87 of 165
what does the distal pancreas form on fusion?
rotates round to form uncinate process and distal head of pancreas
88 of 165
two major types of bile acids and ratio?
glycine and taurine (3:1)
89 of 165
important enzyme in bile acid synthesis?
7 alpha hydroxylase
90 of 165
amount bile acid produced per day
91 of 165
how is fat absorbed in the s intestine?
passively through Micelles or through CD34 channels
92 of 165
what passes through the diaphragm at L8
Vena Cava, Pericardiophrenic nerve and right phrenic nerve
93 of 165
what passes through the diaphragm at L10
Oesophagus, R/L phrenic nerve
94 of 165
what passes through the diaphragm at L12
aorta, thoracic duct and azygous/hemizygous
95 of 165
what enzyme in the endogenous pathway converts cholesterol and lecithin to cholesterol eesters and lysolecithin?
96 of 165
what enzyme in the endogenous pathway transfers cholesterol from HDL to LDL's?
97 of 165
what transporter removes HDL from cells?
98 of 165
what receptor on the liver does HDL bind to?
99 of 165
what is the rate limiting step in lipid absorption?
the unstirred water layer
100 of 165
what are the causes of lipid malabsorption?
Pancreatic insufficiency, bile acid deficiency, liver disease, gallstones, bacteria overgrowth, ileal disease, abetaliproproteinaemia and lymphatic deficiency
101 of 165
what is Dovey's law?
blood flow=difference in aorta and vena cava pressure/resistance
102 of 165
what is Poiseulle's law?
velocity=flow/cross sectional area
103 of 165
What agonist does Novacure block and what receptor does it bind to?
Leukotriene D4 agonist on LTD4
104 of 165
which routes of absorption avoid 1st pass metabolism?
rectal, sublingual, transdermal.
105 of 165
what is Montelukast's dose, bioavailability and route of absorption?
10mg, 64% and oral.
106 of 165
what factors affect drug absorption in the GI tract?
motility, size/formula, food interaction and pH (pH partitioning).
107 of 165
what plasma protein binds acidic drugs?
108 of 165
what plasma protein binds basic drugs?
109 of 165
what does an extensive plasma protein binding do to drug action/elimination?
110 of 165
what rough Vd does total body water have?
111 of 165
what rough Vd does extracellular fluid have?
112 of 165
what rough Vd does plasma have?
113 of 165
what rough Vd does fat have?
114 of 165
what major vessels drain lymph from abdominal viscera?
mesenteric and inguinal back nodes into the Thoracic duct.
115 of 165
where does lymph drain from the breast?
75% axillary nodes 25% parasternal nodes.
116 of 165
what is phase 1 of 1st pass metabolism?
introduction/exposure of a functional group
117 of 165
what is phase 2 of 1st pass metabolism?
attachment of a endogenous group to make it hydrophilic enough to excrete (gluconidaration).
118 of 165
what enzyme group is involved with 75% of all drug metabolism?
119 of 165
most gluconidarated drugs are inactive. what is the major exception?
120 of 165
what enzymes aid gluconidaration
121 of 165
in a paracetemol overdose, what is it converted to by hydroxylation?
NAPQI, which causes DNA and protein damage. Cannot be detoxified by GSH
122 of 165
how do you treat a paracetemol overdose?
charcoal, N acetylcysteine (increases glutathione synthesis>GSH production)
123 of 165
what factors cause greater bio availability?
liver failure, neonate lack of cytochromes, elderly and polymorphism.
124 of 165
which alcohol related enzyme do 30-50% of east asians lack and is inhibited by antabuse?
125 of 165
what toxic metabolite is paracetemol converted into during OD?
126 of 165
how do you treat paracetemol overdose?
charcoal and N acetylcysteine
127 of 165
what do alpha granules in clotting release?
vWf, fibrinogen coag factors and glycoproteins?
128 of 165
what do beta granules release in clotting?
129 of 165
glycoprotein that allows platelet direct binding to collagen?
130 of 165
glycoprotein that allows platelet vW collagen binding?
131 of 165
intrinsic clotting factors and measurement?
8,9,11,12, Activate partial thromboplastin time (APTT)
132 of 165
extrinsic clotting factors and measurement?
7. Prothombin time (PT)
133 of 165
vit k dependent clotting factors?
134 of 165
what is the bainbridge affect?
reflexive tachycardia-selective increase in ach release to SNA, increasing HR but not vasoconstriction
135 of 165
what is postural hypotension?
going from lying to standing, blood moves from middle to legs, causing reduction in arterial BP, causing body to undergo reflexive tachcardia to restore balance until venous pooling ends
136 of 165
what is the limiting factor on cardiac output?
diastolic filling time
137 of 165
what substances oppose coagulation?
prostacyclin, NO, Proteins S and C, antithombin.
138 of 165
what is factor V Leiden?
mutation in factor V causes slowed deactivation by protein C, causing clotting tendency
139 of 165
what converts plasminogen>plasmin to break down fibrin?
140 of 165
which clotting factor do Haemophilia A sufferers lack?
141 of 165
with what mechanisms does the body respond to shock?
ADH release and renin-angiotensin pathway to reduce fluid loss. sympathetic stimulation of glycogen breakdown to increase blood osmolality allowing autotransfusion. ACTH release increases.
142 of 165
when is atrial naturetic peptide (ANP) released and what does it do?
released from heart during stretching. Increases vasodilation, inhibiting water reabsorption and renin/angiotensin.
143 of 165
how do you define hypertension in the under 50's?
144 of 165
causes of secondary hypertension?
renal artery stenosis, aortic stenosis, hyperaldosteronism, phaeochromocytoma, meds, pregnancy and renal disease
145 of 165
what should an arterial thrombus be treated with?
146 of 165
what should a venous thrombus be treated with?
147 of 165
where is heparin made and what does it do?
secretory granules of MAST cells. makes antithombin 1000x more active
148 of 165
when would you use low molecular weight heparin?
in injected doses to counteract shortterm venous thromboembolism/risk
149 of 165
how would you counterract a LMWH overdose?
150 of 165
how does warfarin work?
reduces vit K reductase activity, preventing activation factors 2,8,9,10
151 of 165
what is the recommended salt intake?
152 of 165
what is APOB's function?
153 of 165
what is APOE's function?
structural ligand binding
154 of 165
what is APOC's function?
155 of 165
what is APOa1's function?
156 of 165
what does APOE3 mutation cause?
hyperlipidaema and hypercholesteralaemia
157 of 165
how do you treat hypercholesterolaemia?
statins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, fibric acid derivatives, nicotinic and bile acids
158 of 165
what occurs during isoosmotic dehydration?
reduced extracellular volume (nacl=water loss)
159 of 165
what happens during hypoosmotic dehydration?
intracellular osmol reduces, vol increases. extracellular osmo reduces and volume decreases (NACL>water loss).
160 of 165
what happens during hyperosmotic dehydration?
intra: increases osmol, reduced volume, Extra: osmo increases, volume decreases
161 of 165
what does the macula densa release to reduce renal blood flow?
162 of 165
how do NSAID's damage kidneys?
reduced perfusion of kidneys trigger prostaglandin release for vasodilation. NSAID's inhibit prostaglandins
163 of 165
how is GFR calculated?
u[inulin] x V /[inulin]plasma
164 of 165
at what rate is creatinine produced?
165 of 165
Other cards in this set
haemoglobin levels (Hb)
men: 130-180g/L. women: 115-165g/L
mean cell volume
mean cell haemoglobin
mean cell haemaglobin [..]