Year 12 Britain Topic

Name the 4 reasons why WC was out of office for so long
India, the abdication crisis,rearmament,appeasement
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What were WC's views on India?
Had the view that India was the jewel in the crown of the British Empire; thought that British rule stopped Hindu elites dominating the Muslim working class; he thought that Anglo-Saxons were superior to Indians + British govt prevented corruption
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What was the Rowlatt's Act?
1919- increased police powers by allowing imprisonment without trial
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What were the Montagu-Chelmsford measures?
gave locally elected councils a measure of control over some internal matters
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What and when was the Amritsar massacre?
1919, Ghandi led a campaign against the Rowlatt's Act and troops opened fire on the gathering, killing 400
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What was the Government of India Act 1935?
the electorate expanded to 35mn and there were elected legislatures to deal with local affairs
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What was WC's reaction to the independence movement?
He bitterly opposed it and made it his mission to to defend Britain's interests
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What were the effects of WC's reaction to the independence movement?
extreme public statements and support of racist organisations isolated him from moderate conservatives. baldwin undermined WC's stance. Aimed to make Hoare resign but just shattered cons
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What was the problem with David (EVIII)?
Play boy lifestyle/political comments/attachment to Wallis Simpson
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Why couldn't EVIII marry Wallis Simpson?
public would not accept her as queen and a morganatic marriage would need the approval of parliament-which it didn't have
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What was WC's position on the abdication crisis?
Supported EVIII and made badly timed speech which was shouted down in HOC. Seemed rooted in past
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What were 2 reasons WC objected to the Nazi regime?
He disliked the racism and brutality of the regime and feared a repeat of the pre-1914 situation where G dominated Europe
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What were 2 more reasons WC objected to the Nazi regime?
WC had been a member of the govt that agreed the TOV/WC was worried about air power and feared Uk would be defenceless if AH built up G air power
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What were the problems with WC's views?
He had been responsible for the disarming- 10 year rule/ deep cuts + economic depression meant that poorer people were suffering/WW1 started with similar arms race
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Why did people believe that Germany/AH was not a threat?
France had huge forces and possible threat from USSR did not seem unrealistic should want army/TOV seemed unreasonable harsh/disputes should be left to LON
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When did AH reintroduce conscription?
1935
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When did AH remilitarise the Rhineland?
March 1936
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When did G leave LON/
1933
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What was Chamberlain's stance on rearmament?
Saw that G had legitimate grievances and should negotiate rationally around them, little faith in international bodies such as LON,
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What was NC's solution?
To negotiate whilst also building up defences
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When was the annexation of Austria by G?
March 1938
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What happened in Czechoslovakia?
AH stirred up unrest in the Sudetenland
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Why was moving the border of Cz an issue?
Would removed vitel defences
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How did Europe react to the Sudetendland issue?
UK not obliged to act but French were. If France supported Cz, there would be a war. NC pressured Cz to make concessions
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What did NC do about the issue?
Flew to meet AH in person, did not involve international community or LON, negotiated agreement for self govt of Sudetenland but AH insisted on full union
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When was the Munich Conference?
September 1938
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What was the Munich Conference?
Mussolini offered 4 power conference, little attempts to resist, NC gained Ah agreement on future consultation
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What was the issue with the Munich Conference?
AH encouraged, UK seen as weak, danger that G would go on to dominate Europe, LON not involved, Uk willing to betray democracy
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Why was staying uninvolved an issue?
UK major European power + treaties at end of WW1 would be broken by any territory change
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What were the issues with conceding to AH?
Showed that UK thought that LON was irrelevant, ruled out joint action w/ Fr + USSR,questionable morality of handing over another country's land
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What was WC's POV?
Stand against AH, possibly use force, not clearly stated
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Nme 2 arguments against WC's POV?
Who would be UK allies if there was a war? + troops were tied down in empire
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Name 2 more arguments against WC's POV?
war could lead Italy/Japan taking advantage of undefended territory + WC hostile to USSR, Fr distrusted, suspicious USSR actions in Sp civil war --> alliance unlikely
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Name 2 more arguments against WC's POV?
No plans for a French 1914 style attack + smaller nations would not have been militarily effective as many too concerned about USSR threat
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What was the situation like after Munich?
If repeated, European democracy had no future, public opinion changed esp after end of Cz , WC posititon less unrealistic, conscription introduced 1939, plans for air raids + expeditionary force enlarged
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How did WW2 start?
UK govt made guarantee to Poland, AH had agreement w/ uSSR that G invasion of P would be fine, 1-9-39= G invades P. WC made inner war cabinet and war declared 3-9-39 ater end of ultimatum
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What was the Norway Campaign?
Plan to put mines in Norwegian waters to prevent G reaching N. G landed in N however + UK could not stop them, campaign + its aims questionable
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What was the debate in the HoC over Norway about?
More of a debate over NC, UK war effort poor + only WC had much war experience, Lab forced a vote w/ 281 in favour of govt vs 200. . WC took responsibility over Norway
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How did WC become PM in May 1940?
NC unwell, most felt it was time for him to step down, Lord Halifax favourite but didn't want to give up title + limited experience, WC only choice- backing form Lab. Invasion of Holland= King forced to make WC PM
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Why did MT win the 1979 election?
voters punishing lab for economy failures, m.c resentful of TU power + liberals blamed for keeping Callaghan's govt in power
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What % of the vote did cons win?
43.9%
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What % of the vote did lab win?
36.9%
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How many seats did cons win?
339
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How many seats did lab win?
269
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Why did MT win the 1983 election?
Falklands war= greater uk unity/confidence, labour ÷ SPD and SPD alliance w/l liberals split anti thatcher vote, lab leader foot unpopular --> nationalisation lab manifesto =longest suicide note in history
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What % of the vote did cons win?
42.4%
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What % of the vote did lab win?
27.6%
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How many seats did cons win?
397
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How many setas did lab win?
209
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Why did MT win the 1987 election?
sense of economy doing well, council house sale policy popular w/ skilled w.c, unemployment falling + £ strong, lab not recovered from '83 defeat. MT better leader than lab NC
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What % of the vote did cons win?
43.4%
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What % of the vote did lab win?
31.7%
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How many seats did cons win?
376
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How many seats did lab win?
229
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What did MT believe about inflation?
eroded social stability, made Uk industry over priced, reduced enterprise, fuelled govt spending, a result of keynesianism, target by reducing money in circulation
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When was the shift from direct to indirect taxation?
1979
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What were initial govt measures on the economy in 1979?
Honour pay awards of Callaghan's govt and increased VAT pushed up prices
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What did the 1980/81 budgets do?
cut govt spending, reduce govt borrowing, increase taxes
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What were the disadvantages of Howe's policies?
rate at which prices rose went from 18% to 4.5%, manufacturing output fell by 14%, unemployment x2 by '83, govt did not support struggling industries, high interest rates = difficult to pay loans
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What were the social costs of the economic conditions?
Riots in brixton april 1981 and London July 1981
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What were the signs that the policies were working?
unemployment still rising but growth rate and productivity recovering, stronger businesses thriving, Uk becoming more competitive
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What did MT believe about nationalised industries?
that they were inefficient, overmanned + better able to raise investment capital outside of govt control
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How did and when did MT privatise industries?
after 1983 election, accelerated sale of utilities into private hands
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How many private shareholders were there by 1990?
11 mn
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What was the problem with privatisation?
value of shares rose steeply after issue, encouraging shareholders to sell their shares for a profit, meaning big financial operations held most of the shares
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What was the advantage of the taxation shift?
reduced top and basic rates of income tax + capital gains and inheritance tax reduced so UK incomes most lightly taxed than anywhere else
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What as a disadvantage of the taxation shift?
VAT, petrol taxes etc increased
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What did the 1986 Financial Services Act do?
Deregulate the London stock markets, which ended the Stock exchange's monopoly on share dealing
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What was an issue with the deregulation?
seemed that gap between high earning financial sectors of London and poor industrial areas of the North/Wales was increasing
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What would supporters of MT say about her economic policies?
that she brought down the rate of inflation, privatisation improved performance, deregulation meant London was the centre of global financial market, shareholding gave people a stake in the economy
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What would critics of MT say about her economic policies?
economic success came form North Sea Oil, privatised companies worked for profit, not the customers, deregulation encouraged selfish get rich quick attitude, social cost high- communities hit by fll in manufacturing
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What did MT do to the NHS?
hospitals became self governing trusts, services to compete with one another to provide more efficient services, GPs become fundholders + manage their own budgets
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What did supporters say about her NHS policies?
gave NHS financial discipline
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What did critics say about her NHS policies?
that profit motive would take priority over patient care + first stage of privatisation
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What education change happened in 1986?
replacement of CSEs/O'Levels w/ GCSEs
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What education change happened in 1988?
introduction of the National curriculum + regular national testing, state schools given right to opt out of local authority as grant maintained schools w/ control over budgets
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What were the concerns about the education changes?
MT doubtful but persuaded by keith Joseph, some argued that GCSEs not academically rigorous, national curriculum thought of as too restrictive, some maintained MT was not consistent
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What happened to unis in 1981?
cut budgets, forcing unis to look elsewhere for funding + accepting more students
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What did the 1988 Uni funding council do?
created to ensure uni education reflected needs of economy not just pure research
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What happened to the polytechnics?
removed from local authority control and placed under uni funding council
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What were the council house sales?
first govt ction was to allow long time tenants the right to buy their houses + insisted that home owners get mortgage relief. property ownership increased by 12%
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What were MT believe about the TUs?
laws protected over manning + restrictive practices, union power made UK firms uncompetitive because of high labour costs, jobs would become available once UK adjusted to market conditions
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What did the Employment Act of 1980 do?
outlaw secondary picketing and increased rights of workers who weren't part of a TU
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What did the Employment Act of 1982 do?
restrict sympathy strikes + ballot w/ 85% agreement before closed shop
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What did the TU Act of 1984 do?
TUs had to hold secret ballot before industrial action
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What were the other factors in falling strike numbers?
high unemployment meant that workers on strike meant that they could be replaced, MTs policies had been affecting TU membership and as membership fell, more difficult to organise strike action
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Why did the miners go on strike 1984-1985?
National Coal Board facing losses of £250mn, so govt propose plan to close 20 uneconomic pits w/ loss of 20,000 jobs
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What did the govt do to prepare for the strike?
1981 Whitehall committee organised coal stockpiling, Central Electricity Generating Boardd stock piled coal @ power stations, national Reporting Centre to coordinate police movement to trouble spots + intelligence
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Name 3 reasons the miners' strike failed
1. miners not united, formed a breakaway union of UDM 1984 2. the strike was held during spring/summer when there was less coal demand 3. labour party reluctuant to support Scargill, who had little public sympathy + extremeist
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Name 3 more reasons why the miners' strike failed?
1. violent incidents undermined sympathy for the miners 2.other workers suffered from economic change,many saw it as impossible to keep subsiding a failing industry 3. govt was prepared to use force to protect miners who wanted to work
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Name one last reason why the miners' strike failed?
1. Scargill refused to hold a ballot in April 1984 to see whether to continue or not, this alienated many workers
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What was the impact of the strike?
NUM membership dropped to 100,000 by 1987, the strike bankrupted the union + divided opinion on MT more than ever
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Why were MT's first years in govt difficult?
Her gender divided opinion, she had little experience of govt, she had few allies in her shadow cabinet
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Why did she have success in her first years?
did succeed in establishing a band of loyalists, backed in the HoC by energetic MPs, very popular with grassroots members of the party
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How did MT achieve mastery of her cabinet?
appointed wets but made sure allies shared views, promoted other supporters + sacked wets, after winning Falklands was able to be more commanding, hard work and preparation won admiration but inflexible leadership led to frustration
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How did opposition grow against her style of leadership?
Heseltine resigned over Westland affair in 1986 (potential alt leader), Whitelaw suffered a stroke and left in Dec 1987, feel out with Lawson and Howe in '89, Howe's resignation speech led to downfall
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Why did MT inspire such support?
Seen as a clear sighted leader, credited with influencing chnage internationally, admired for personal toughness, even critics acknowledged her clarity in a crisis
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Why did MT inspire such criticism?
policies controversial (poll tax/ taxation shift), policies hit poor, felt that she had created a culture of greed, ignored the plight of the homeless, miners became her opponents
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Name the four reasons MT resigned in 1990?
1. Poll Tax 2. Economic difficulties 3. divisions over Europe 4. growing unpopularity
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What was the Poll Tax issue?
in 1988, wanted to introduce a flat rate tax on every individual, cabinet + tory MPs opposed + advised to drop it, introduced in Scotland and many Scots refused to pay it. Day before in England- riots in Trafalgar Square , 400 policemen injured
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What were the economic difficulties?
Oct 1987= stock market crash wipes 24% shares. Lawson reduces income tax rates, causes spending boom, prices pushed up, inflation+ interest rates reach 15%, m.c paying heavily (her biggest supporters)
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Why did MT regret the Single European Act 1986?
moved towards closer monetary + political union w/ Europe
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What did she disagree w/ Howe and Lawson over?
joining the ERM
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When did Lawson resign?
October 1989
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When did the UK join the ERM?
October 1990, persuaded by JM
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What showed the govt's growing unpopularity?
Lab victory in Vale of Glamorgan by election w/ 6000 vote win, cons won 33.5% vs lab 38.7% in the European Parliament elections, by June 1990, lab 16 pts ahead of cons in opinion polls
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What triggered MT's fall from power?
Antony Meyer challenged her leadership, she won but indicated that growing unpopular. Howe resignation speech called for her resignation
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What happened during the Nov 1990 leadership election?
Heseltine challenged her for leadership, she won but not by enough to stop a 2nd round of voting, was advised she could not win + resigned. Replaced by JM
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What were the 3 problems faced by JM when he became PM?
1. lacked authority 2. cons divided over Europe 3. lab were revitalised under New Labour
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Why did JM lack authority?
elected by MPs only because they did not want Heseltine, lacked experience, only in cabinet since 1987, uncharismatic personality ridiculed by media
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What was the problem w/ the limited majority?
Cons MPs who disagreed w/ policies could threaten defeat in parliament, any by election defeat could increase danger of parliamentary defeat
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What was the Maastricht Treaty?
a treaty committing European states to full intergration
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What did JM do about the Maastricht Treaty?
mangaed to negotiate two opt outs but faced battle to get parliament to ratify the treaty- faced alliance between lab + sceptics in own party. Had to force through by saying that if they didn't pass it, he would resign govt
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What was Black Wednesday?
Sept 1992, inflation measure tipped UK into depression, pound fell in value as bankers sold it, JM tried to get BoE to buy pounds + push up interest rates, failed + UK had to w/draw from ERM. ruined cons economic management reputation
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What happened during the 1995 leadership election?
Jm weakened by Europe divisions, seemed not in control of party/govt, challenged by REdwood, won but showed level of opposition
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What was New Labour/
Revitalised by NK and taken over by Blair in 1994- TB reconciled Lab to MT reforms, abolished Clause IV, appealed to cons supporting businessmen- Lab not socialists in disguise
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What % + how many seats did Lab win?
43.2% + 418
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What % + how many seats did Cons win?
30.7% + 165
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Why did Cons lose?
JM struggle w/ eurosceptics = weak, cons rep for good economic management ruined by ERM fiasco, sleazy scandals undermined public confidence, long period of cons rule- many felt time for a change
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Why did Lab win?
TB youth/optimism appealed to voters, media presentation effective, not socialists in disguise--> abolish clause IV/ wooing of cons business men
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What 2 issues was WC facing by May 1940?
UK forces had been cut off from French forces + had fallen back to Dunkirk (300,000 needed rescuing) and if Italy entered the war, it could threaten Eg. + the Suez Canal, which would cut off UK routes to the empire.
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Name 2 more issues WC was facing in May 1940
Japan was a possible threat to the UK in South Asia and gold reserves were depleted- could UK afford to wage war?
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Name 2 more issues faced by WC in May 1940
G had bombed Holland/ the low countries - it could bomb Br. and Lord Halifax was making discreet approaches to G over peace deals
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Why would approaching Italy about a peace deal be dangerous?
It would make Br look weak to G + look like resolve was weakening in the war
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How many British troops were rescued from Dunkirk?
224,318
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How many UK allies were rescued from Dunkirk?
111,172
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What was the situation of the war by June/July 1940?
Australia wanted peace, the USA wouldn't intervene, France surrendered, UK attack on French fleet to stop it falling into G hands
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When did the German air raids on Britain begin?
August 1940
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What happened during the 'Battle of Britain'?
During August and September, G fighters bombed RAF bases. By September, Goring and Hitler moved the focus to British Cities.
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What were British strategies during the Battle of Britian?
Led by Sir Arthur Dowding: not following G aircraft across the channel and mobilising small groups of fighters
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Card 2

Front

What were WC's views on India?

Back

Had the view that India was the jewel in the crown of the British Empire; thought that British rule stopped Hindu elites dominating the Muslim working class; he thought that Anglo-Saxons were superior to Indians + British govt prevented corruption

Card 3

Front

What was the Rowlatt's Act?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were the Montagu-Chelmsford measures?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What and when was the Amritsar massacre?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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