Wyatt Rebellion

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How was the Strength of the Tudor dynasty shown?
people of the time recognised Mary as the legitimate heir not Lady Jane Grey
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What were Mary's 3 main priorities?
1. restore Catholicism 2. marriage and children to secure the succession 3. war with France
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Why did Mary want to marry as quickly as possible?
she was 37 when she inherited the throne in 1553
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Who were the two main marriage candidates?
Edward Courtney and Prince Philip of Spain
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Was Edward courtney a good and bad candidate?
good= great grandson of Edward VI Bad= weak personality and lacked social graces
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Why was Prince Philip a better candidate?
a good catholic with a father Mary trusted
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When was the marriage proposal presented?
10th October 1553- agreed by the end of the month
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Why was the marriage treaty created and what did it do?
concern the match would lack popular support and put strict limitations of Phillips role and influence in England
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How did the public react to the marriage?
immediate outcry to the marriage proposal and rumors circulated of a plot to marry elizabeth to courtentay to form a protestant succession
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Why did the rebels not want Mary to marry a Foreigner?
feared the government would be taken over by a foregein leading to English interests becoming subservient to the interests of Spain
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What do Historians debate?
whether the rebellion wanted to remove Mary and instate Elizabeth as queen or if it was due to the grievances towards the marriage itself
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What economic issue also contributed to the causes of the Wyatt rebellion?
concern of increased taxes for foregin adventures such as French wars
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What was their evidence of and how did people react when Spainish negotiators arrived?
widespread xenophobia and sorrowfully
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Why was their instability in Kent?
a shake up in office-holding
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How did the younger gentry feel?
that Phillips presence at court might affect their career opportunities
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What is there strong evidence for why most rebels got involved?
because they did not want to see a Catholic restoration and the return of papal authority
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Where did alot of Wyatt's support come from?
from the area around Maidstone in kent which was a stronghold for protestantism and of religious radicals
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What were many nobles unhappy about?
Mary quickly placed Catholics in positions of responsibility such as the privy council
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Why did the government commission a book?
thought that if regilous grivances were the main causes of trouble it would divert attention away from opposition to the marriage
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What else did the book help the government to do?
potray protestant rebels as traitors and punish them accordingly (difficult to trust this evidence considering who it was written by)
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Why was there economic hardship In Kent?
decilne in the cloth industry over a long period of time which tended to make people less tolerant of change and more likely to air their grivances
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What is also clear?
a good number of Mary's subjects were significantly disgruntled with her polices after the first few months of her reign to contemplate open rebellion
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What happened in Autumn 1554?
some gentry at court began to discuss how they might organise a protestant succession
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What did they plan to do?
Edward Courtenay would marry princess Elizabeth who would become Queen
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How did they plan to do this?
4 four coordinated uprisings on 18th March 1554
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Who would take the lead and where?
Wyatt= Kent Sir James Croftes= Herefordshire Courtenay= Devon Duke of Suffolk= Leicestershire
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How was the French ambassador involved?
by promising naval support in the channel and helping securing ports in the South West
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What provoked earlier action than the Rebels had planned?
on 14th Jan 1554 the terms of the marriage treaty were annoced
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Who found out about the plot and what did this lead to?
Simon Renard (father of Phillip) - Courtnaey being weak and confessing all he knew and 3 of the 4 locations did not raise supporters
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Why do historians belive their was little popular support for the rising ?
alothough oppositin to the spainsh marriage was widespread,it was not sufficently strong to provoke popular rebellion - protestant leaders were too caitous to get involed
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Who was sir Thomas Wyatt?
a large landowner from a prominent shire family from kent
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When had Wyatt come to prominence?
1549 with a plan to create a regular militia with groups of trained men in each county under a paid professtional
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Why was Kent a good source of support?
close to London, advanced in protestism and more suspicious of catholic foreigners than most areas of the county
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In mid-January how many men did Wyatt raise?
2500-3000 armed men
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How did he whip up anti Spanish feelings?
by playing on fears of being dragged into a war on Spain's behalf and the potential of Spainards arriving in Kent at anytime
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What did it seem one of his concerns was?
that he would not manage further advancement under Mary, although he claimed he wanted to rescue the Queen from 'foolish advice'
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What did it appear he was open to doing if Mary would not abandon her marriage plans?
replacing Mary with Elizabeth
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What meant that Mary's control was seriously threatened?
their closeness to london and because the crowns own forces were weak
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Why did slow government response give Wyatt opportunities?
as Arundel and Shrewsbury (both opponents of the marriage) failed to move against him
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What was done by the 29th January?
the troops of the Duke of Norfolk, sent to stop Wyatts men, had been persuaded to join wyatt forcing the Duke to return to court
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What did Wyatt also managed to acquire?
ships and cannons
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Although Wyatt had a number of men what was he lacking?
aristocratic support
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What gave the city time to organize its defenses?
Wyatt delayed his advance to london which hindered him
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How did this delay hinder him?
he could not cross the river Thames near to the Tower as it had been damaged to stop him
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Where was Wyatt by the 3rd of February?
reached the Thames at Southwark
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Where was Wyatt by the 12th of feb?
he had led his troops about 20km west to kingston
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Where was he eventually stopped?
at Ludgate, half a kilometer from the tower
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How did the rebels reach Ludgate?
the town was heavliy fortified and to reach it the rebels had to move up narrow streets
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how did this affect the position of the rebels?
it left the men open to beinging trapped by armed londers loyal to Mary
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What were Wyatt and his supporters forced to do?
surrender and ask for mercy
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Although Wyatt came closer to any other tudor rebellions to removing the monarch what id one reason it failed?
Marys reponse to the rebellion
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Who did Mary not appeal to and how did this help?
Charles V, perhaps the presence of foregien troops would have played into wyatts hands
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How did Mary's presence in london help?
she ordered fortification of the city, rather than leaving the capital vulnerable to attacks from other directions
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How did Mary gain support?
appealled to Londoners on 1st feb playing on fears of an invasion of armed men comming into the city who would bring destruction and chaos
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Who did Mary receive support from?
The more neteral Councillors like Pembroke and Bedford
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What was another reason the rebellion failed?
Wyatts own failings
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How did Mary benefit from Wyatts decision to take cooling castle?
it meant he lost a whole day, arriving too late to take the Thames at southwark, where London bridge was reinforced and held out against rebels
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What were the other two things Wyatt failed to do?
1. invole more than one noble (duke of suffolk) 2. orthodox protestant leadership refused to give support (failed to get them onside)
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How many and who was executed?
90-100 rebels inculding Wyatt and Lady Jane Grey and her Husband who were inncocent
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What happened to the bulk of captured rebels?
(around 600) were freed as paget urged leniency
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What happened to Elizabeth?
she was spared as she was not nvoled in plans but was arrested on the 9th of feb and held under house arrest for the following year after a brief stay in prison
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How did people respond to Wyatts death?
he became a martyr as people dipped their handkerchief in his blood
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What was Mary encouraged to do by her advisers?
reasonably lenient to show her true christian nature and raise her status in the eyes of the people
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How did the rebellion affect Prince Phillip?
made him more reluctant to marry his cousin and delayed his departure for England as long as possible
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when he arrived on the 20th of July what was his welcome like?
not particularly friendly espically as his cheif english supporter (paget) had fallen from favour
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What did phillip do after the wedding on 25th July 1554?
remained at court to do his duty as king and husband depite being regaurded with suspicion by many of Mary's councillors
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even though Wyatts rebels were stopped half a kilometer from the tower why does this not nesscarliy mean they wanted to overthrow her?
a rebel with a grievance needed to bring it to the attention of the monarch so would have attempted to reach london where the monarch was
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Why should we be skepictal of Wyatts defence?
he did not want to change the monarch, when faced with the prospect of execution for treason most rebels would lie
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What is it likely that many of the cheif conspires wanted compared to the lesser people involed?
to topple Mary but lesser people would have just wanted to protest about her marriage
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What were they to discover about their uprising?
they had very little chance of success againsit a monarch whos right to rule was regonised and sustained by aristocratic support
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Why was the danger to the throne enhanced?
because it was a quarrel within the ranks of the political community, rather than a threat to the whole social order when the elite tend to close ranks againsit it
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What can it be seen as?
a violet attempt by a section of the politcal nation to interfre with the formulation of foregin policy
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Did the rebellion have any chance of success?
possibly but there were a few weaknesses
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Why had starting the rebllion in January instead of march been a weakness?
worst month in terms of weather and roads that they had planned to use became unusable due to rain
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How did their route affect their success?
route into london was difficult wit narrow roads and imposing gateways surronding the city
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What was a major weakness of the plot?
the fact that it required the 4 uprisings to succed if the authories were going to be spilt in where to spend troops
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why were people reluctant to support the plot?
country did not want disorder a disputed sucession would bring- things would have been bad for those with politcal power to risk their land and titles to overthrow a legitimate monarch
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Card 2

Front

What were Mary's 3 main priorities?

Back

1. restore Catholicism 2. marriage and children to secure the succession 3. war with France

Card 3

Front

Why did Mary want to marry as quickly as possible?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who were the two main marriage candidates?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Was Edward courtney a good and bad candidate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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