World Order

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  • Created by: Becca96
  • Created on: 06-06-15 11:30
What is power?
The ability to influence the outcome of events (power 'to') or to influence the behaviour of others (power 'over').
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What is traditionally considered to give a state power? Give four factors.
Military strength. Economic development. A large, skilled population. Beneficial geography (good climate and resources, safe from natural disasters etc).
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What are 'great powers' and what four characteristics do they possess?
States considered to rank amongst the most powerful in the global state hierarchy. Possess military power, economic power, a global sphere of influence and power projection (real influence on global affairs).
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What gave rise to the term 'superpowers' and who coined the term?
The concentration of global power between the USA and USSR that was evident after WWII. William Fox coined the term in 1944.
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What five characteristics do superpowers possess?
Dominance in global economy. Extensive military resources that can be projected over a great distance. Soft power - acceptance of ideology and culture. Great structural power. Responsibility to maintain global order.
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What happened to many 'great powers' after WWII?
Became junior partners of the US.
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Why is the term 'great powers' used despite their diminished relative status?
To distinguish 'superpowers' from the other traditional 'great powers'.
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What are 'regional powers', and what is happening to the most advanced of these?
States with power within a limited geographical region. Some growing economically and gaining wider global influence; e.g. NICs such as India.
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What is the 'balance of power' theory?
The idea that optimal security is reached through a power equilibrium, where power is equally distributed between conflicting parties. If a state gains power and poses a threat to others, threatened states group together to form defensive coalition.
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What is the realist perspective of the 'balance of power' theory?
Realists support it, believing it is a way to secure temporary stability.
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What is the liberal perspective of the 'balance of power' theory?
Liberals criticise it, believing it entrenches power politics and breeds rivalry, mistrust and instability.
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What is unipolarity?
An international system in which there is one dominant state/bloc, or 'pole'.
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Why do realists support unipolarity?
The dominant power 'polices' the international system, settling disputes and setting group rules for economic behaviour.
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What is the theory that explains realist thinking of unipolarity?
Hegemonic stability theory.
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Why do liberals criticise unipolarity?
It encourages megalomania on the part of the hegemony, as well as fear, hostility and resentment among other actors.
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What is bipolarity and what period is it associated with?
An international system that revolves around two 'poles'. Associated with the Cold War era, given the East-West superpower rivalry.
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What distribution of power is required in a bipolar system?
Power should be roughly distributed between two main powers; there should be particular similarity in terms of military capacity.
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Why do realists support bipolarity?
They believe bipolar systems achieve a balance of power that results in stability and predictability.
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Why do liberals criticise bipolarity?
Associate bipolarity with tension and insecurity, as states prioritise military power and strive for hegemonic status.
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What is multipolarity?
An international system in which there are three or more power centres (states or otherwise).
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Why do realists criticise multipolarity?
They believe a multipolar system is unstable and war is more likely as states seek to achieve the relative gains that are within their reach.
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Why do liberals support multipolarity?
Liberals argue multipolar systems are characterised by a tendency towards multilateralism which results in cooperation, peace and stability,
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What is hard power?
The use, or threat of use, of military or economic might to influence another actor into a certain position.
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Give an example of hard power.
The USA employed 'hard power' strategies by invading Iraq and Afghanistan.
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Give a limitation of hard power and give an example of this happening.
Undermines soft power efforts; the torture of Guantanamo Bay prisoners and increased drone strikes in Pakistan has weakened US influence in the Muslim world.
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What is soft power?
The ability to influence others actors by inciting admiration and respect for a state's culture and values.
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Give two examples of soft power.
The liberal democratic values of the USA have been replicated around the world. Furthermore, China has spread its culture, values and language globally through the installation of Confucius Institutes (educational facilities) around the world.
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Give a limitation of soft power and an example of this.
Less effective than hard power EU diplomacy has been weakened by its lack of hard power - for example, it suffered from a lack of armed force to back up mediation efforts in Yugoslavia and was saved by NATO.
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What is an arms race and what are the realist and liberal perspectives of arms races?
Military build up that occurs as states increase military capability in response to each other. Realists - helps ensure balance of power, deterring further conflict. Liberals - Increases likelihood of war by heightening paranoia and nationalism.
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Why were realists shocked by the end of the Cold War?
Realists believe states unconditionally pursue their own interests however, Gorbachev was prepared to scale down dominance of Eastern Europe without irresistible strategic pressure from the outside (USA).
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Why did liberals celebrate the end of the Cold War?
Highlighted a trend in favour of cooperation and away from the use of military power.
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Why did liberals believe this cooperative behaviour had come about?
Economic globalisation encouraged interdependence and consequently integration and trade as opposed to conflict.
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Why do realists believe the Cold War exemplified the stable nature of bipolar systems? Give two reasons.
There was a balance of power, esp. militarily; nuclear weapons possessed and MAD that entailed effectively deterred the breakout of conventional war. Also, two stable blocs formed around superpowers, avoiding fluctuating alliances of multipolarity.
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Why do liberals believe the Cold War was a dangerous period? Give 3 reasons.
There was an atmosphere of tension and suspicion between blocs. Arms race increased the possibility of war breaking out that could annihilate mankind. Peripheral wars (such as Korea and Vietnam) were bloody and tragic.
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Give four reasons that the aftermath of the Cold War was considered a 'liberal moment'.
Democracy consolidated in many former Soviet States when they joined EU/NATO. State controlled economies ended in favour of free markets. Ideological rivalry ended, giving way to more collaboration. IGOs found themselves with much more influence (UN)
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What were the two main impacts of the end of bipolarity for the USA?
The US had little fear of a check on use of its military power - Russia disapproved of the Iraq and Kosovo wars but had no power to prevent them. The US could also disregard international agreements - refused to ratify Kyoto or participate in ICC.
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Give three problems that affected the former Soviet bloc in the aftermath of the Cold War.
Political and economic instability during the transfer from communism to democracy and free markets. Ethnic tensions arose such as in former Yugoslavia. Former Soviet states got caught between West and Russia - 2014 Ukraine crisis.
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What happened in Ukraine in 2014?
Pro-Russian president overthrown in Feb, making it less likely that Ukraine would join Russia's 'Eurasian Union' economic grouping. Russia responded by seizing Crimea, encouraging separatists in Ukraine. West imposed sanctions, susp. Russia from G8.
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Why was it argued that there was a 'new world order' after the end of the Cold War?
The UN began to take a far more prominent role in global conflict, such as in the Gulf War and former Yugoslavia.
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Give two reasons that the UN failed to live up to the idea of a 'new world order'.
Intervention in Somalia 1992-3 failed - 18 US soldiers died and operation collapsed. Scarred by Somalia, the UN failed to intervene effectively in Rwanda - 800,000-1,000,000 killed.
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What is hegemony?
Dominance of one state over all others in a collection of states. This collection may be a single bloc, or the international system as a whole.
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What proportion of global manufacturing did the USA control immediately after WWII?
40%
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What events immediately after WWII established the USA's dominance within the Western bloc?
Establishment of Bretton Woods system.
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Give three examples of US unilateralism under Bush in relation to IGOs.
The Iraq War, refusal to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and withdrawal from the International Criminal Court.
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What did the foreign policy neoconservatives believe in the aftermath of 9/11?
The USA should take advantage of its unrivalled power on the world stage by achieving a position of military strength 'beyond challenge'.
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What was the 'Bush doctrine' that neoconservatism gave rise to?
The idea that the USA had the right to attack states that helped or harboured terrorists.
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Give the three main features of neoconservative foreign policy.
Build up of USA's military strength ('beyond challenge). Policy of worldwide 'democracy promotion' focused on Middle East. Will to preserve and reinforce the USA's 'benevolent global hegemony'.
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When was the Afghanistan invasion and what did it achieve?
2001. Topped Taliban regime within weeks.
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When was the Iraq invasion and who fought in it?
2003. Fought by a 'coalition of the willing' (not UN authorised).
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Why was the Iraq War more controversial than the Afghanistan War?
There was evidence that Afghanistan provided Al Qaeda with a base and there were links between the Taliban and Al Qaeda, justifying the invasion as self-defence. Iraq war was 'pre-emptive attack'; invasion took place on the basis of little evidence.
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What were Bush's suspicions which he used to justify the Iraq invasion (on little evidence)?
Suspicion that Hussein had links with Al Qaeda and possessed WMD.
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Give two long-term problems that the USA has experienced in the aftermath of the Iraq and Afghanistan invasions?
Counter-insurgency characterised by suicide bombings and guerrilla warfare; hard to contain. Secondly, failure to establish order has led to success of ISIS in Northern Iraq.
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What indicated a shift towards multilateralism under Obama from 2009 onwards?
Obama called for 'a new beginning between the USA and Muslims', attempting to achieve more cross-cultural understanding. Promised to close Guantanamo but didn't.
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What caused Obama to reverse his multilateral approach during his second term? What has he done?
Rise of ISIS as a global terrorist threat has resulted in increased drone strikes.
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Give four arguments that the USA remains a global hegemon.
Dominates militarily - spent 3x as much as China in 2013. Economically powerful and resilient - accounts for 40% of global spending on research. Large, skilled population with low age profile. Unrivalled structural power.
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Give four arguments that the USA is no longer a global hegemon.
Redundant military power against globalising forces e.g. terrorism. Economic power in relative decline compared to China - recession exposed flaws. Soft power damaged-corporate power/inequality/war on terror. Declining diplomatic influence-G20 rise
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How much more did the USA spend on its military in 2013 than China?
3 times more
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How many military bases in how many different countries does the USA have?
700 bases in over 100 countries.
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How much of global spending on research and development does the USA account for?
40%
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What is the US population predicted to be by 2050?
439 million.
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Why has the age profile of the USA been kept low in comparison to Europe, Japan and China?
Large increases in Asian and Hispanic communities - expected to continue.
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When was the Russian Federation formed?
1991.
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What effect did Yeltsin's pro-market economic reforms have in the 1990s?
Industrial decline, lowered living standards, financial instability.
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What three things has Putin's leadership been associated with?
Strengthened political leadership, economic recovery and the emergence of 'electoral authoritarianism'.
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What underpinned the economic recovery of Russia after the 1990s?
An abundant supply of oil, natural gas, precious metals and coal. This has been used to boost industrial and agricultural production as well as to exert leverage on neighbouring countries; Europe in particular.
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How many nuclear warheads does Russia have and how large is its army?
8,500 warheads and a 845,000 strong army.
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Give an example of Russia's soft power.
Ability to control popular media outlets in region; Russia's state-controlled television channels enjoy more popularity in Belarus and Moldova than those countries' domestic channels.
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Why does Russia's method of economic recovery make it vulnerable?
Success is subject to price fluctuations in the global economy.
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What happened to Russia's industrial production during the 2007-2009 global financial crisis?
Declined by 16%.
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How many overseas military bases does Russia have?
10-18.
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What proportion of Russia's population is disqualified from military service on the grounds of poor health?
52%
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What reforms does the modern rise of China stem from?
Market-based economic reforms that were introduced in 1977. These include the reduction of trade barriers, investment in education and infrastructure and joining the WTO in 2001.
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What has China's economic growth per year been for around 30 years?
Around 10%.
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Where does China's military rank in terms of size and expenditure?
First in terms of size; second in terms of expenditure.
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Give four examples of China demonstrating its structural power.
It is a member of the P-5. It has a prominent role in the G20. Key player in the WTO. Important role in 2009 Copenhagen climate change summit.
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Give four examples of China's soft power.
Beijing Olympics 2008. Confucius educational institutes. Investment in Africa (although this is in return for its resources). Anti-colonialism stance - the voice of the global South/emerging economies.
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Give two ways in which China's economy is far inferior to that of the USA.
Technologically inferior and One Child Policy is creating a rapidly ageing population.
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Give three ways in which China's soft power is damaged.
Human rights abuses, poverty and inequality, censorship. (Tiananmen square?)
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Give an example of smart power.
USA enforcing sanctions on North Korea whilst also offering food aid?
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Where does India's military rank in terms of size?
Third.
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Why has India's service-orientated economic growth been criticised?
Fewer jobs created - requires more skills than manufacturing.
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Give two examples of India's soft power.
Peaceful image - tolerant, pluralist democracy. Bollywood film industry widely admired.
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Give two factors that damage India's soft power.
Poverty and inequality severe. Hindu caste system operates in India, resulting in discrimination.
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Give three examples of India's structural power.
Member of the G20, founding member of the UN and part of the BRICS.
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Where does Brazil's military rank in terms of size?
13th
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How is Brazil weaker militarily than other big powers.
No nuclear weapons or WMD.
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Give three examples of Brazil's soft power.
Progress in gender equality - has a female President. Exotic culture, widely admired. Sporting soft power - hosted World Cup in 2014 and will host Olympic Games 2016.
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Give two factors damaging to Brazil's soft power.
Poverty and inequality. Notorious for slums in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo.
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Give three examples of Brazil's structural power.
Member of G20. Founding member of the UN. Part of the BRICS.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is traditionally considered to give a state power? Give four factors.

Back

Military strength. Economic development. A large, skilled population. Beneficial geography (good climate and resources, safe from natural disasters etc).

Card 3

Front

What are 'great powers' and what four characteristics do they possess?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What gave rise to the term 'superpowers' and who coined the term?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What five characteristics do superpowers possess?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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