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In what year did the Alternative Energy Development board in Pakistan launch Solar Home Systems?
2003
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How many homes were fitted with solar panels by the AEDB?
100
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How is fitting solar panels considered technological leapfrogging?
It's cheaper for Pakistan to install solar panels than to build a power station and power system to remote villages.
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What does the Barefoot College in India do?
Teaches women to assemble and install solar energy, which gives them skills and empowers them.
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What are the negatives of the Barefoot College?
It is difficult to find women to participate, and villages depend on charity or government support to build solar panels as they are expensive.
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What percentage of mobile phone subscriptions were in developing countries in 2008?
68%
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How much FDI has gone into mobile networks?
Over $1 billion; 25% of the country has coverage and 12% own a mobile.
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Why is mobile networking considered technological leapfrogging?
It avoids the cost of laying cables across vast areas.
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Why is improved geographic accessibility good?
It means calls are cheap and affordable even for the poorest.
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How does increased access to banking and microfinance help people?
Money can be transferred by text or voice, which helps the illiterate.
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What are the positive impacts of mobile phone access?
Families can keep in contact and send remittances, farmers can find prices of products at market beforehand, it allows businesses to order goods more cheaply as they don't have to visit cities to gain them.
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How many people does Afghanistan's IT and telecommunications industry employ?
50,000 people.
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What are the negative impacts of mobile phone access?
There is a fear of new technology and westernising influence - women have been banned from having phones by local leaders in some communities - and the Taliban have found a way of using mobile phone signals as remote detonators for IED bombs.
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How many mobile phones are used in Africa?
500 million.
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What have Safaricom and Vodafone introduced?
'M-Pesa' - it allows people to store money in phones and bank.
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What did an engineering student at the University of Nairobi develop?
An automated fishing trap which uses sounds of fish feeding to attract fish and sends a text to the fisherman when the trap is full. They are now developing a system to ensure it doesn't cause overfishing.
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How are mobile phones being used to improve health in Africa?
Mobile Alliance for Maternal Action (MAMA) sends messages to women in LEDCs to educate them about their health in either text or voicemail, and covers pregnancy in the first year of a baby's life.
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What does GM stand for?
Genetically Modified.
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How could GM crops help development?
They could potentially stop famines, meet the world's growing population's food needs, contain medicines within crops.
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Who mainly uses GM crops?
Private businesses that need to make a profit and must recoup costs in sales.
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How much does Monstanto spend each year developing seeds?
£600 million.
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What was Golden Rice?
In Taiwan and the Philippines Golden Rice provided rice which contained added vitamin A. However, it wasn't enough to make a difference.
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Why is Greenpeace against GM crops?
There is a potential risk of GM crops escaping into the wild and mixing with non-GM crops.
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Why is the Organic Consumers Association against GM crops?
The effects of eating them long-term haven't been tested.
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How much in premiums can farmers using Monsanto be charged for GM varieties?
Up to 35%.
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What are the downsides to GM crops?
Poorer farmers can't afford them or go into debt to buy them to compete, and many farmers in India have committed suicide due to high levels of debt after buying GM seeds?
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How does Monsanto put even more financial strain on farmers?
Monsanto produce seedless varieties, so farmers must buy new seeds every year to increase the company's profits.
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Who mostly develop medicines?
Private businesses that need to make a profit and must recoup costs in sales.
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Why is this controversial?
Ani-retroviral drugs to manage HIV have been sold by companies such as Abbott at high rates of $10,000 per patient, neither individuals nor governments can afford this cost as most of the world's HIV patients live in Sub-Saharan Africa.
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What are companies focusing on instead of HIV and Malaria medicies?
They are researching illnesses such as cancer and diabetes for people in MEDCs, as they can afford the drugs at high costs.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How many homes were fitted with solar panels by the AEDB?

Back

100

Card 3

Front

How is fitting solar panels considered technological leapfrogging?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the Barefoot College in India do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the negatives of the Barefoot College?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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