World Cities Case Studies

Dharavi Slums

Mumbai Suburbanisation

London Docklands Redevelopment

Islington, London Gentrification

Hulme Regeneration

Meadowhall and Sheffield Decentralisation

Birmingham Redevelopment

Freiburg Sustainable Transport

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Where are the Dharavi slums located?
Mumbai, India
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What is the population of the Dharavi slums?
1 million
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What is the area of the Dharavi slums?
1 square mile
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How does housing change towards the centre of the Dharavi slums?
Newcomers live on the edge - homes are less stable; older homes in the centre are more organised and solid
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How big are the homes in the Dharavi slums?
12x12
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Approximately how many people live in each home in the Dharavi slums?
6
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Give 3 facts about the sanitation in the Dharavi slums.
Children play on pipes, next to sewage, 4,000 cases of Diptheria a day, 1 toilet per 500 inhabitants, laundary area right next to sewer, open sewers in streets
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How much access is there to schools from the Dharavi slums?
Little access
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How many 'cottage industries' are there in the Dharavi slums?
15,000 one-room factories
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What percentage of people in the Dharavi slums have a job within it?
85%
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What is work like in the Dharavi slums?
Poor conditions, cheap labour, not always legal
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How much revenue does the Dharavi slums make each year?
$1 billion
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How is water distributed throughtout the Dharavi slums?
1 hosepipe per 12 homes; taps turned on between 5.30-7.30am, so must get enough water to last the day.
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Why do some people want to redevelop the Dharavi slums?
It is in the heart of the business district of India's capital
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What would the redelopment of the Dharavi slums cost?
$1.2billion
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How much has the suburban population of Mumbai grown between 1901 and 2001?
From 1.52 million to 85.88 million
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What direction has Mumbai's population growth been in?
South to North
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Where is there a concentration of slums in Mumbai?
In the North
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How many passengers does the Mumbai railway carry a day? Why is this a problem?
6.6 million a day; 4x its daily load limit
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Where are the London Docklands located?
On the River Thames, in the east of London
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Why did the London Docklands area begin to decline in the 1960s?
Trading ships became too big, large parts derelict by the 1980s
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What did the decline of the London Docklands area have on the area?
150,000 people lost their jobs; 20% of the houses were unlivable
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What does LDDC stand for?
London Docklands Development Corporation
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Give 3 positives of the London Docklands redevelopment.
24,000 new homes built, 7,900 council houses renovated, improved transport - can now reach city centre in 10 minutes, 130,000 hectares of open space created, since 1980 population doubled
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Give 2 negatives to the London Docklands redevelopment.
Conflict between older and newer more affluent residents; many of the original residents were unable to find work as they were often not qualified for the new jobs (e.g. banking)
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Give a way the London Docklands impacts were managed.
Some areas the LDDC asked for housing to be sold at affordable prices for original residents; centres set up to train basic literacy, maths and ICT skills.
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Where is Islington located?
North London
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Why did the homes in Islington deteriorate in condition?
They were occupied by wealthy residents, but when railways expanded these residents moved to the suburbs. Poorer residents moved in but couldn't afford to maintain the Georgian and Victorian homes.
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When did the middle classes begin to buy houses in Islington?
1960s
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Why did the middle classes begin to buy the Islington homes?
Well connected to city centre, near Angel undergroud station, houses large and attractive but cheaper, gentrification encouraged others to buy homes and do the same
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Give 2 positive impacts of Islington gentrification.
Improved housing; new businesses opened
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How much did the Islington homes increase in price by between 1996 and 2008?
£130,000 to £430,000
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Give 2 negative impacts of the Islington regeneration.
Wealth gap between residents, some businesses had to close (traditional pubs and convenience stores)
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How have the impacts of Islington regeneration been managed?
Businesses encouraged to pay London minimum living wage of £8.30 per hour; charities work to improve education
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Where is Hulme located?
Manchester
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What was the 1960s Hulme regeneration designed to look like?
Crescents in Bath
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How many people did the 1960s Hulme regeneration house?
13,000
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What was the concept for the 1960s Hulme regeneration design?
'Streets in the sky' for family living
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Give 3 disadvantages to the 1960s Hulme regeneration.
Children no where to play; vermin spread quickly, 30x more likely to be mugged or murdered than national average, couldn't afford heating (underfloor) due to rising oil prices, eventually a place to put problem families
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What was the budget for the 1990s Hulme regeneration?
£31 million
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Give 3 factors to the 1990s Hulme regeneration.
Road layout changed, co-operation with resident's opinion, new business centre at Birley fields, Hulme park built, new youth centre, 2,000 new homes for sale and rent
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Give a positive impact to the 1990s Hulme regeneration.
Population rose by 3.3% between 1992 and 2002 (0.2% in rest of city); unemployment fell from 32-6% between 1989 and 2010
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Give a negative impact to the 1990s Hulme regeneration.
Still poor area and 47.5% still live in council housing; house prices increased; unemployment high compared to rest of Manchester
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Give 3 background information details about Meadowhall.
Built on site of 3 demolished steelworks; opened september 1990; cost £275 million; up to 800,000 visitors a day; 30 million visitors a year
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Give 3 advantages of Meadowhall to shoppers
270 retail outlets in 1 location; dedicated access from J34 of M1; 12,000 free parking spaces; open 7 days a week; 'Oasis' food court - largest in world when built; Transport interchange - buses, taxis, trains and Supertram
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What is the Meadowhall effect?
Many businesses move to Meadowhall causing decline in other areas
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What proportion of the population lives within 1 hour's drive of Meadowhall?
1/8
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Why might the regeneration of Meadowhall have a negative impact on Sheffield City Centre?
M generates £320m in clothing and retail sales - £260m in city centre; 14% of shops on high streets are unoccupied; Air Quality Awareness scheme to combat increased emissions
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Why might the regeneration of Meadowhall not have such an impact on Sheffield City Centre?
3 million people in 10 years will be over 70 - increased city centre market; redevelopment of The Moor; all new developments require planning permission; new retail quarter for Sheffield with £500m backing
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Birmingham Redevelopment: When was Brindley place opened?
29th September 1993
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Birmingham Redevelopment: How much did Brindley Place cost?
£350million
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Birmingham Redevelopment: What does the Brindley Place building include? Give 2 facts.
19 restaurants, shops and bars, 120 new homes, 1,100,000 square ft of offices - 6,000 jobs, leisure - cinema and bowling alley
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Birmingham Redevelopment: How big is the Cube?
25 storey - 440,000 square ft
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Birmingham Redevelopment: Give 4 uses within the Cube.
Office and retail, housing - 244 apartments, Hotel, canal-side restaurants, luxury spa facilities, UK's largest automated carpark
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Birmingham Redevelopment: How much gross rent does the Cube produce?
£3.254 million
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Birmingham Redevelopment: When was the Birmingham Bullring reopened?
September 2003
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Birmingham Redevelopment: How much did the Birmingham Bullring cost?
£500 million
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Birmingham Redevelopment: How many visitors has the Birmingham Bullring attracted?
400 million
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Birmingham Redevelopment: How many jobs has the Birmingham Bullring created?
6,000
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Birmingham Redevelopment: How many retailers and restaurants are there in the new Birmingham Bullring?
160 brands and retailers, and 40 restaurants
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Where is Freiburg located?
Germany
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How have they encouraged people to use public transport in Freiburg?
Transport timetables are integrated (buses and trains etc)
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How is the transport system in Freiburg made more efficient?
Unified ticketing system - one ticket for a whole journey no matter what routes are taken
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How is the light rail in Freiburg easily accessible?
65% of residents within 300m of a station, runs every 7.5 minutes
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How have cyclists benefited from the system in Freiburg?
Can travel both ways down one-way streets
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Give 2 impacts of the improved public transport system in Freiburg.
68% of all journeys done on foot, bike or public transport; between 1992 and 2005 CO2 emissions per capita fell by 13%; passenger fares cover 90% of running costs
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Card 2

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What is the population of the Dharavi slums?

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1 million

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What is the area of the Dharavi slums?

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How does housing change towards the centre of the Dharavi slums?

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Card 5

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How big are the homes in the Dharavi slums?

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