World Cities

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  • Created by: em42
  • Created on: 06-05-15 12:54
1. How many people live in urban areas?
A total of 3.3 bn people.
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2. Why was 2007-08 significant for global urbanisation trends?
The number of urban dwellers exceeded the rural population for the first time.
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3. How has the number of people living in urban areas changed since 1900?
In 1900, 10% of the world's population lived in cities. By 2030, this figure will rise to 60% & y 2050 it will be 75%.
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4. What is the most common ages for people in urban areas?
Half of the urban ppulation today is under 25.
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5. What are the expected changes for the urban populations in Asia, Africa and Latin America?
Asia - Set to rise from 1.4 bn people to 2.6 bn by 2030. Africa - Its urban population will rise from 300 mn to 250 mn. Latin America - Will rise from 400 mn to 600 mn.
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6. What is an urban agglomeration?
It exists when urban areas merge with each other.
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7. What is a megacity?
An urban area with a population in excess of 10 mn people. Greater Tokyo is the largest with a population of ~35 mn people, larger than Canada (~33 mn people).
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8. How many megacities are there in the world?
In 2007, there were 20, 15 of which were in the developing world. Many are expected to reach 20 mn people by 2015. New cities will also become megacities. By 2020, there could be 30 megacities around the world.
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9. How many cities have over 1 mn people?
More than 200 cities, around 70 of which are in China.These 'million cities' include many cities in the developed worls which are stagnating/in decline.
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10. What is a world city?
A city with significant global economic & political power: London - global financial centre, world's busiest international airports, 23 Global 500 companies. Tokyo - global financial centre, 52 Global 500 companies.
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11. Why are megacities increasingly transforming themselves into new urban forms?
As cities grow, they reach a size limit (approx. 15 mn people) beyond which the city cannot grow with one central business district (CBD). As this limit is reached the city becomes so congested that people begin to move outwards. Cities become more
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11. Why are megacities increasingly transforming themselves into new urban forms? [continued]
linear & a string of urban centres grows into a megalopolis/urban archipelago.
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12. Why is the rate of urbanisation highly variable?
Some cities are growing at breakneck speed & others are slowing to a crawl. There is a contrast in the nature of urban processes in large cities, depending on their location in the world & stage of economic development.
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13. Describe the world urbanisation type immature (developing world).
Growth - very rapid: 3%+/yr. Largely migration growth. Economy - informal economy = 60%. Small-scale manufacturing, street trading, urban farming. Planning & cycle of urbanisation - Urbanisation: Little planning: uncontrolled sprawl.
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13. Describe the world urbanisation type immature (developing world). [continued]
Squatter settlements dominate. Basic needs barely met. 60%+ live in slums. Environmental problems. Examples - Kabul, Lagos, Kinshasa.
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14. Describe the world urbanisation type consolidating (developing world).
Growth - rapid 2-3%/yr. Balance of migration & internal growth. Economy - Manufacturing important, some service industries. Informal economy ~50%. Planning & cycle of urbanisation - Urbanisation & suburbanisation: Attempts at planning, focused on
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14. Describe the world urbanisation type consolidating (developing world). [continued]
waste, congestion & water supply. Upgrading of slums & some social housing. Most basic needs met. Examples - Cairo, Mumbai, Jakarta, Chongqing.
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15. Describe the world urbanisation type maturing (developing world).
Growth - slow: under 2%/yr. Largely internal growth. Economy - service industry dominates, with some manufacturing. Informal economy under 40%. Plannng & cycle of urbanisation - Suburbanisation: effective attempts at housing, transport & land use
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15. Describe the world urbanisation type maturing (developing world). [continued]
planning. Environmental problems being tackled. Quality of life satisfactory for many. Gated communities in suburbs. Examples - Mexico City, São Paulo, Bejing.
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16. Describe the world urbanisation type established (developed world).
Growth - very slow, under 1%/yr, some stable. Economy - dominated by professional, services & retail. Formal economy. Planning & cycle of urbanisation - Counter-urbanisation & reurbanisation: Large-scale sub-urbanisation, with counter-urbanisation.
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16. Describe the world urbanisation type established (developed world). [continued]
Since 1980, most have regenerated inner-city & former industrial areas. Quality of life is high for most, & environmental quality is good. Examples - London, San Francisco, Paris, Birmingham.
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17. What are the high population growth rates in the world's most rapidly urbanising cities fuelled by?
Rural-urban migration. This is most acute where rural poverty is highest.
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18. What are the push and pull factors for this type of migration?
Push factors include: food shortages, lack of land due to subdivision, fuel shortages, soil erosion, war/conflict, natural hazards. Pull factors are mainly perceived opportunities such as: jobs, better housing, healthcare & a chance of an education.
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19. What is the double effect of rural-urban migration?
Most migrants are young & fertile, this creates high natural increase, further fuelling population growth.
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20. What are natural increase and rural-urban migration contributing to in some developing cities?
Staggering rates of urban growth. By 2015, every hour 42 people will be added to the population of Mumbai, 50 to Dhaka & 58 to Lagos.
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21. Why are these trends widely different in the developed world?
Greying populations have reduced natura increase, or even reversed it. Urban growth in cities like London is largely due to international immigration. Despite regenration, suburbanisation & counter-urbanisation continue to draw people out of cities.
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22. What crisis has rapid urban growth in the developing world led to?
A slum crisis. Lacking jobs & forced to work in the informal economy, people build their own settlements. Most lack tenure, sanitation & clean water are patchy/absent. 60% of the population live in slums on 6% of the city's land.
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23. How much of the population in Mumbai live in slums?
60% of the population live in slums on 6% of the city's land.
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24. What is the growth rate of slums around the world?
They are growing at a rate of 2.2%/yr. At this rate, the slum population will rise from 1 bn to 1.4 bn by 2020.
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25. Where do newcomers to developing world megacities tend to inhabit?
'Old' slums such as Dharavi in Mumbai. These are tenament blocks & shanty towns with appalling overcrowding & sanitation. An advantage is they are close to work in the city.
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26. Where are squatter settlements and slums usually situated?
Squatter settlements spring up on the 'septic fringe' through organised landgrabs. Slums are located where no one else wants to be e.g. dangerously steep slopes, next to polluted rivers, on marshland/downwind of polluting industry.
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27. In both the developing and the developed world, what have the disadvantages of the inner city created?
They have created 'movers' who increasingly suburbanise to the urban edge. New suburbs are often 'gated'. This trend increases the segregation between the rich & poor.
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28. What challenges do megacities in the developing world generally face?
Problems usually resulting from a lack of resources.
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29. What challenges do megacities in the developed world generally face?
Problems usually result from overuse of resources & large urban ecological footprints. At both ends of the development spectrum, a lack of management of urban waste & systems leads to environmental problems.
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30. There are many environmental issues facing megacities. What are ways that developed cities can reduce inputs?
Water metering & pipe mending. Reduction in the use of packaging. More public transport. More efficient vehicles. Recycling building materials. Localised food distribution & improved storage.
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31. There are many environmental issues facing megacities. What are ways that developed cities can reduce outputs?
Using less polluting vehicles. Finding alternative energy sources. Recycling Water reuse. More carbon sequestration e.g. urban gardens, farms & forests.
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32. Why must these methods to reduce inputs and outputs be implemented?
To ensure ecofootprints are to decrease & urban quality of life improve.
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33. Why is China planning to open a series of ecocities and which due to be the first?
The ecocities will showcase urban sustainability. Dongtan is to be the first & is due to be constructed close to Beijing & could accomodate up to 500 000 people.
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34. What are some of the main aims of Dongtan?
To be largely car-free & carbon neutral. Energy will be provided from renewable sources, wind farms & solar panels. A waste treatment plant will convert sewage & compost into biogas that will be used for cooking, heating & power generation.
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35. Why has construction of Dongtan been delayed?
Partly due to the global recession of 2008-10. Also, the building of new ecocities/'greening' existing cities is expensive & needs a lot of political will to push through.
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36. Where does help come from to improve slums?
Often from NGOs working in slum districts, with funding from local authorities, NGOs themselves & organisations such as the world bank.
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37. What are some of the things that improving slums focuses on?
Providing residents with tenure as a first stage in giving them confidence to make improvements. Providing basic services such as clinics & schools, often by city authorities. NGOs providing improved water supply such as tubewells & standpipes.
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38. Why is it generally not feasible to improve slums large-scale?
In many megacities, the scale & continual growth of the slums defy this approach of large-scle slum clearance & major sewage & water engineering projects.
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The number of urban dwellers exceeded the rural population for the first time.

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