World at Risk Revision Cards

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  • Created by: Alisha
  • Created on: 24-05-14 16:55
Hazard
A perceived natural event which has the potential to threaten both life and property
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Disaster
A hazard becoming reality in an event that causes deaths and damage to goods/property and the environment
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Phenomenon
Physical occurrence resulting from the movement or deformation of the Earth's crust or from hydrological and meteorological processes
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Geophysical Hazard
A hazard formed by tectonic/geological processes (include earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis)
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Hydro-meteorological Hazard
A hazard formed by hydrological (floods) and atmospheric (storms and droughts) processes
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Risk
The probability of a hazard event occurring and creating loss and lives and livelihoods
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Vulnerability
A high risk combined with the inability of individuals and communities to cope
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Magnitude
The size of the event
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Frequency
How often an event of a certain magnitude occurs
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Earthquake
A sudden violent shaking of the ground typically causing great destruction as a result of the movements within the Earth's crust or volcanic activity
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Destructive Plate Boundary
(Converging) plates move together so material is lost
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Constructive Plate Boundary
(diverging) plates move apart so material is created
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Conservative Plat Boundary
plates move past each other so material is conversed
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Lithosphere
the crust of the Earth around 80-90km thick
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Volcanoes
A mountain/hill, typically conical having a crate or vent through which lava, rock fragments, hot vapor and gas are or have erupted from the Earth's crust
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Mantle Plume
An upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth's mantel, tectonic activity not at a plate boundary
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Landslide/Avalanche
collapse of a mass of earth/rock/snow/ice falling rapidly down a cliff or mountain
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Drought
a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall leading to a shortage of water
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El Nino
Change in circulation of currents in Pacific Ocean. Circulation is reversed causing droughts in Australia and floods in South America
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La Nina
Change in circulation of currents in the Pacific Ocean. Circulation is like normal but intensified causing floods in Australia and drought in South America
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ITCZ
inter- tropical convergence zone, a zone of low atmospheric pressure near the equator. This migrates seasonally.
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Floods
An overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits, especially over what is normally dry land
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Tropical Storms
A localised, very intense low pressure wind system forming over tropical oceans and with winds of hurricane force.
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Hazard Hotspot
A place at risk from more than one type of disaster often at high magnitude and affects large numbers of vulnerable people
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Fold Mountains
Upland area formed by buckling of Earth's crust at destructive (continental) plate boundaries
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Epicentre
Point immediately above earthquake focus at Earth's surface
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Earthquake Focus
point at which pressure releases within the crust
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Subduction
process by which a more dense plate is forced beneath a less dense plate
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Benioff Zone
zone above subducting plates
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Climate
the average conditions of precipitation, temperature, pressure and wind measured over a 30 year period
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Climate Change
any long-term trend or shift in climate detected by a sustained shift in average value for any climatic element (e.g. rainfall, temperature...)
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Proxy records
used to reconstruct climate before the start of instrumental records e.g. poems, paintings, diaries...
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Thermal Expansion
increased volume of the oceans as a result of their higher water temperature leading to sea level rise
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Milankovitch Cycles
Earth's astronomical cycles whose variations cause ice ages/variation in seasons
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Eccentricity
Shape of Earth's orbit around the sun
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Axial Tilt
Inclination of Earth's axis in relation to its plane of orbit around the sun
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Procession
slow wobble of Earth as it spins on its axis
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Thermohaline Circulation
A global system of surface and deep-water ocean currents driven by differences in temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline) between areas of ocean
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Greenhouse Effect
Natural effect needed to sustain life where the solar radiation from the sun is absorbed by the Earth's surface and is emitted by the Earth as infrared radiation and is absorbed by GHGs in the atmosphere
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Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
Natural greenhouse effect is increased due to humans adding extra GHGs to the atompshere
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Anthropogenic
caused by humans
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Albedo
how much solar radiation a surface reflects
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Feedback Mechanism
where the output of a system acts to amplify (positive) or further reduce (negative) further output
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Tipping Point
The point at which a system switched from one state to another or when a change becomes irreversible
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Mitigation
Involves reducing the output of greenhouse gases and increasing the size of greenhouse gas sinks.
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Adaptation
changing out lifestyles and businesses to cope with increasing dangers from climate change
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A hazard becoming reality in an event that causes deaths and damage to goods/property and the environment

Back

Disaster

Card 3

Front

Physical occurrence resulting from the movement or deformation of the Earth's crust or from hydrological and meteorological processes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A hazard formed by tectonic/geological processes (include earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A hazard formed by hydrological (floods) and atmospheric (storms and droughts) processes

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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