World at risk

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  • Created by: Rimsha25
  • Created on: 14-05-16 19:56
Whats the difference between a hazard and a disaster?
A hazard is a possible threat while a disaster is a reality
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What impacts a countries capacity to cope?
Debt / Population density / size of economy / education
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What can increase vulnerability?
Population increase / Global warming/ removal of natural defences e.g. mangrove swamps
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What is a disaster hotspot
An area vulnerable to more than two natural siasters
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Hazards in California
DROUGHT - La Nina / Anticyclones / wind from desert areas TSUNAMI - earthquake on sea bed EARTHQUAKE - conservative boundary
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Why is Californias population vulnerable
More than 70% live within 50km of fault line; 20% residents in LA live under poverty line; massive economy=massive economic loss; coastal towns vulnerable to tsunami
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Why does the Phillipines experience hazards
Located in typhoon belt; located on a destructive margin; in the "ring of fire"; many coastal regions; monsson weather; el nino
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Why is the Phillipines' population vulnerable
High population density; population pressure led to deforestation; settlements in hazardous areas/ unstable land; many live under poverty line
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Evidence for long term climate change
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evidence for medium- term climate change
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Evidence for short term climate change
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Why are some evidence for climate change unreliable
Proxy sources/ exaggerated / lack of scientific technology available / subjective and qualitative / not as detailed or accurate
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Natural causes of climate change
variation in solar output; variation in Earths orbit; Meteor impact; Volcanic eruption; El Nino
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Human Causes for Climate Change
Enhanced GHG emissions, removal of carbon sinks (deforestation)
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How does Global warming lead to sea level rise?
Land ice melts - eustatic change ; Thermal expansion
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Whys is Banlgadesh at risk from sea level rising
80% low lying land ; high population density ; poor country - low capacity to cope; people living on at risk areas (e.g.flood plains)
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Why is the Maldives at risk from sea level rising
0.5m rise can submerge most of the country; removed natural defences for aesthetic purposes; economy based on tourism which is threatened by rise
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Environmental impacts of climate change on the arctic
thawing permafrost releases CH4 ; fresh water injected into sea disrupting currents
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Ecological impacts of climate change on the arctic
habitats lost/reduced ; invasive species (spruce beetle) damages environment; phytoplankton killed by UV radiation; foodweb messed up
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Socio-economic impacts of climate change on the arctic
new shipping routes; easy access to natural resources; tourism now more common; forestry/ agriculture opportunity; conflict over ownership of resources
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Arctic warming impact on the rest of the world
sea level rise; GW accelerated ; ocean currents change as salinity is affected
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Whys is Africas population vulnerable to climate change?
CC affects crops so subsitence farmers at risk of starvation, political turmoil means responses arent made. poor countries less able to prepare
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Impacts of CC in Africa
desertification in Sahel = decrease in agricultural production / poverty/ malnourishment/ unemployment/ starvation ; malaria spreads ;tourism industry suffers ; erratic climate ; longer growing period in tropics
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difference between mitigation and adaptation
mitigation - stoppint the issue. adaptation - reducing the impacts of the issue
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Mitigation strategies
carbon tax ; changing energy mix ; tree planting ; carbon offsetting; conserve energy
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Adaptation Strategies
educate locals; flood barriers ; use freshwater efficiently ; plant crops that flourish in new environment
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Players in coping with climate change
Gov - develop on national/international scale ; Businesses - can make investments or contribute further ; NGOs - pressure groups ; individuals - local level of a larger strategy e.g. recycling
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An international Agreement
Kyoto Protocol : agreement between 180 countries. developed cut emissions by 5% and developing simply moniter.
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Problems with the international agreement
4 of the highest emmitters ( India, Chna, USA ,Austrlia) didnt originally sign up. Scared it would slow economic growth. Poor countries didnt feel responsible. Richer countries didn't think it was fair. Criticism over how high the goal should be
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Example of how climate change can lead to conflict
Egypt/ Sudan and Ethiopia reliant on water from the river Nile. If Ethipia or Sudan increase water use, Egypt's supply reduces. Egypt has stated that it is ready to use force.
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Card 2


What impacts a countries capacity to cope?


Debt / Population density / size of economy / education

Card 3


What can increase vulnerability?


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Card 4


What is a disaster hotspot


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Hazards in California


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