Working Memory Model

Who developed the Working Memory Model?
Baddeley and Hitch
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In what year was the Working Memory Model developed?
1974
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What area of memory does the WMM expand on?
STM
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In the original WMM, what were the three components of memory?
Central executive, a visuo-spatial sketchpad and a phonological loop.
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In the phonological loop, what two futher components are there?
Articulatory loop and primary acoustic store.
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What is the central executive involved in?
All tasks requiring attention. It will select what to pay attention to .
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What does the VSSP do?
Deals with visual and/or spatial information. It holds the information that we see. It can be described as an inner eye.
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Whta does the Aritculatory Loop do?
Primary acoustic store can hold incoming verbal information for a few seconds before it decays. Articulatory Loop can rehearse the information sub-vocally. It also holds words we are preparing to speak out loud.
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What does the Primary acoustic Store do?
It deals with auditory information. Links with AL. Acts as an inner ear.
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What is the capacity of the CE?
It is believed to have a limited capacity.
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What types of information can the CE deal with?
Different types of sensory memory. (It is modality free)
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Where does information to the VSSP come from?
Retrieving from LTM or directly observing. (e.g we rely on it to remember our journey home)
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When are two tasks carried out most effectivley?
When they operate on two different slave systems. (e.g PL and VSSP, not visual and spatial).
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What is the capacity of the VSSP, and what is evidence of this?
Limited about 3 to 4 objects, Corsi block tapping task. (Number of errors increases with the number of blocks lit up.
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When is the AL used? (Example)
When trying to remember a telephone number
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What can the AL be used to explain?
The 'Word-length' effect. Relates to the idea that capacity isnt limited by the number of items, but how long it takes to recite them.
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Where does the PA Store recieve incoming auditory information from??
Directly or from the AL (as in you can hear your own voice if you speak sub-vocally).
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What is an example of auditory imagery?
Having a song stuck in your head.
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What is supporting study for the Phonological Loop in WMM?
Baddeley (2003)
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Describe Baddely (2003) and how it supports WMM?
Found letters that sound alike were not recalled as well as those that didn't. It shows evidence that the phonological loop existed. And 'phonological similarity effect'
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WHat is a supporting study for the VSSP in WMM?
Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
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Describe Baddely and Hitch (1974) and how it supports WMM?
Visuo-spatial task was interfered by pointing task, but not by a verbal task. This supports the idea that two tasks can be performed more efficiently when they involve the use of two separate slave systems, it also supprts that it has a limited capac
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What are two opposing studies for WMM? (Evidence against)
Levy (1978) and Lieberman (1980)
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Describe Levy (1978) and how it opposes WMM?
She tested the effect of articulatory suprepssion on ppts. She found it didn't affect their ability to remember the gist or general meaning of the words. It suggests that articulatory loop isn't needed for extraction of meaning in reading.
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Describe Lieberman (1980) and how it opposes WMM?
Criticises VSSP, Lieberman pointed out that blind people have excellent spatial awareness without first visual information. He suggested it should be split into two which goes against WMM as it suggests that it is one component.
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What is the application of WMM?
It can help explain partial selective deficits in STM store in brain damaged patients.
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What are two general supporting factors of WMM?
1) It is the best model of STM avaliable. 2) Research into it is vast, not just experimental, increasing the reliability and validity.
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What are two opposing factors of WMM?
1) The CE is abstract and not directly testable, not possible to get empirical data. 2) Many experiments use artificial tasks.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

In what year was the Working Memory Model developed?

Back

1974

Card 3

Front

What area of memory does the WMM expand on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In the original WMM, what were the three components of memory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

In the phonological loop, what two futher components are there?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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