Word Classification, Grammar and nuts and bolts of our language.

  • Created by: Louise98
  • Created on: 18-10-15 19:14
Acronym
Words created by the initials of other grouped words.
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Adjective
Describing word which modifies nouns and pronouns.
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Adverb
Describing word which modifies all types of words except nouns and pronouns.
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Adverbial of manner
Adverb which suggests something is done in a certain way.
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Adverbial of time
An adverb made up of a phrase that tells when an action took place.
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Definite Article
The
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Indefinite Article
A or AN
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Clause
A unit of sentencing which includes a verb, subject and sometimes an object.
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Clipping
Colloquial omission of parts of words to create more casual alternatives.
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Collocations
Words that through usage go naturally together.
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Colloquialism
Informal language usage.
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Comparative
An adjective that relates one thing to another in some way and usually ends in 'er'
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Compound words.
A word created by utilising two existing words separated by a hyphen.
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Coordinating conjunction
A word that joins clauses in a compound sentence.
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Subordinating conjunction
A word that joins clauses in a complex sentence.
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Connotation.
Associations that can be gleaned from words.
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Denotation.
Literal meaning of a word.
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Determiners.
Adjectives that precede nouns and relate directly to them.
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Ellipsis.
When parts of a written structure are missing.
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Exclamation.
A one word sentence (always a minor sentence) that ends with an exclamation mark.
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Fronting.
What we label elements at the start of a sentence.
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Gerund.
When a present participle with the 'ing' suffix is used as a noun.
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Grammar.
The construct of written language.
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Homonym.
When one word has multiple meanings.
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Homophone.
When different words sound exactly the same when they are said out loud.
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Hyponym
Where a word can be used as an 'umbrella term' for more words.
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idiom
a saying which is often cliché where the words which make up the saying don't have the same meanings as the semantic effect.
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intensifiers
words, usually adverbs which are designed to intensify the emotional content of a phrase.
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monosyllabic lexis
words with one syllable.
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polysyllabic lexis
words of two or more syllables
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morpheme
the smallest unit of grammatical meaning in language
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morphology
the process of changing words into different forms
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noun phrase
when a phrase acts as a single noun
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abstract noun
a naming word for an idea, concept, state of being or belief
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collective noun
– a naming word for the grouping of common nouns
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Common Noun
a naming word for a thing that is tangible
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Proper Noun
a naming word for a specific example of a common noun
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Parenthesis
an aside within a text created by sectioning off extra information between brackets, dashes or between two commas.
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Past participle
the past tense.
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past perfect tense
using the verb ‘have’ in the past tense (‘had’) in conjunction with another verb...
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phrase
group of words centred around a head word.
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phoneme
– a small SOUND unit of language – tiny individual sounds which can be categorised in the same way that alliteration can
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portmanteau
a newly invented word, created by merging two words together,
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preposition
a word that shows the physical relationship between one thing and another
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Present participle
when the verb is in the present tense used with the auxiliary verb ‘am’ or ‘are’
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Pronoun
a word that takes the place of a noun in a sentence, e.g. him, her, it, he, she, I, you, me (selfreflexive pronoun), they.
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1st person pronoun
I and the first person plural: we, our, us
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2nd person pronoun
you
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3rd person pronoun
him, her,he, she, it and they
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demonstrative pronoun
this, that, those
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interrogative
who, what, why, how, when
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personal objective form/ oblique form (Pronoun)
a personal pronoun that is used as the object of a prepositional or verb action.
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Pronoun (personal nominative form)
personal pronoun that is used as the subject of a sentence
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Pronoun (possessive/genitive)
mine, yours, his, hers, theirs
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pronoun (reflexive)
when a personal pronoun utilises the suffix ‘self’ or ‘selves’.
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Referencing- Anaphoric
an overt reference to something that occurred earlier in a text, often by using pronouns to build upon previous sentences
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Referencing- Cataphoric
an overt reference to something that occurs later on in a text, for example by using the ambiguous pronoun ‘it’ before the audience is aware of what this pronoun represents
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Referencing- Endophoric
referencing an element from within the text itself
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Referencing- Exophoric
making a reference to things beyond the language of a text itself
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Register
the level of formality of a text.
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Semantics
the meaning of words, or any discussion of word meaning
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Complex sentence
a simple sentence with an added clause that somehow adds extra information linked by a subordinating conjunction.
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Compound sentences
two simple sentences (of equal semantic weighting) joined by a co-ordinating conjunction (or a semi-colon where the co-ordinating conjunction would have been).
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Minor sentence
a sentence that is incomplete by missing a subject or a verb, yet it still is capped with a full stop
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Simple sentence/ independent main clause
every sentence must contain a subject (a noun or pronoun), a verb (something for the subject to do) and, perhaps, an object (something for the subject to do something to), e.g. I love English Language
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declarative sentence mood
when a sentence is making a statement.
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exclamatory sentence mood
when a sentence conveys a strong sense of emotion, sense of alarm or overly strong emphasis.
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imperative sentence mood
when a sentence is issuing a command
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interrogative sentence mood
when a sentence is asking a question.
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split infinitive
when an infinitive verb is split in two with an adverb, e.g. “to boldly go” - no longer considered ‘ungrammatical’ due to frequent use in the language.
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superlative
an adjective that displays the most extreme value of its quality,
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Syntactic dislocation
can be ‘right’ or ‘left’. When a clause utilises a pronoun it makes sense, but dislocation can occur for further clarification and other effects by adding seemingly unnecessary nouns at either side of the clause.
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syntactic variance
the mixture of long and short syntactic structures for effect.
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Syntax
the way words form sentences (the ordering of them to create meaning).
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Tenor
the tone of voice, or the relationship between author and reader and how it is created.
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Tense
The frame of time the grammar of an action is carried out.
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past tense
I ate
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Past continuous tense
I was eating
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past perfect tense
I had eaten
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Past perfect continuous tense
I had been eating
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Present tense
I eat
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present continuous tense
I am eating
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present perfect tense
I have eaten
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past perfect continuous tense
I have been eating
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Future tense
I am going to eat
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Future tense
I am going to eat
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Future tense
I am going to eat
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Future conditional tense
I will eat
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Future continuous tense
I will be eating
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Future perfect tense
I will have eaten
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Future perfect continuous tense
I will have been eating for nearly twenty days by the time I finish
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Terminus
The end of the sentence.
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Verb
a word that represents an action or process
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Active verb
word that represents a physical action
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Auxiliary modal verb
an auxiliary verb that express a degree of either possibility or necessity.
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Auxiliary verb
a verb that has to be used with another verb in order to create present participles or the future tense
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Verbs- infinitive form
verbs, in all their forms, derive from the infinitive form, which is basically, the verb with ‘to’ written before it. From this form other forms.
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Irregular verb
a verb that changes form unusually when used in a different tense without the usual or ‘regular’ patterns
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Stative verb
A word that represents a process that is often only mental.
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Verb conjugation
Changing the form of the verb from its root form.
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active voice
When the subject of the sentence carries out the verb
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Passive voice
When the subject is a recipient of the verb.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Adjective

Back

Describing word which modifies nouns and pronouns.

Card 3

Front

Adverb

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Adverbial of manner

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Adverbial of time

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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