Wolsey and foreign policy

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What was Wolsey's principal aim in foreign policy?
TO maintain the balance of power in Europe by ensuring Charles V of Spain and Francis I of Francis couldn't act without considering England.
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When did Wolsey first gain experience?
1512 by organising the English army that went to France: financing, transporting, feeding the army ETC. Impressed Henry with his correspondence with Ferdinand of Aragon.
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What title was Wolsey given in 1513?
Quartermaster-general
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Was the expedition a success?
Yes. French force defeated near Therouanne, captured and captured Tournai. Enhanced Wolsey's reputation as organiser and Henry's reputation as a warrior.
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When Louis XII became a widower in 1514, how did Wolsey seize the opportunity?
Propsed a Valois-Tudor alliance sealed by marriage to Mary (Henry VIII sister).
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How was the alliance advantageous to Henry?
Gave him an annual income of 100,000 crowns and confirmed his possession of Tournai. Successful for Wolsey as diplomat.
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Why was the alliance shortlived?
Because Louis XII died early 1515 and Francis I came to the throne.
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When was the Treaty of London? Who was it between?
Autumn 1518. England, France, Spain, the HRE, Papacy, Burgandy, Netherlands.
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What did the Treaty of London conclude?
A policy of peaceful co-operation and to make war on any ruler that broke the terms of the Treaty. Wolsey praised for his negotiating skills.
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Who was there tension between two years after the Treaty of London?
Charles V of Spain and Francis II of France.
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How did Wolsey try to cool down the feud?
The Field of the Cloth of Gold
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When was the Field of the Cloth of Gold?
June 1520
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Was the Field of the Cloth of Gold successful?
No. Most signifcant diplomatic event in early European history, with all the luxuries: galleries, 5300 attendants. BUT it didn't improve Anglo-French relations, and Charles suspected Henry for siding with Francis, but they hated eachother.
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What was the main factor in the Habsburg-Valois conflict?
The control of Italy. The (Valois) King Francis II wanted to secure control of the Italian peninsula but opposed by Charles V. 1521, Francis declared war on Charles.
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Charles called for the signatories to come to his aid as he broke the terms of the Treaty, what Treaty did Henry/Wolsey and Charles conclude separately?
Treaty of Bruges in 1521. Anglo-Imperial alliance. Wolsey agreed to send an English army. Delayed for as long as possible.
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Francis refused to make peace, 1523 English army was sent to help. Outcome?
Not successful. No decisive victory. Henry urged Wolsey to withdraw due to the piling expense.
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When was the Battle of Pavia? What happened?
1525- French army completely destroyed by Spain so Wolsey wanted to split France between Henry and Charles.
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What did Charles decide to do?
Didn't trust Henry so gave Francis his kingship back after making him swear on an oath that he wouldnt declare war on Spain, his sons would even be held hostage.
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How did this backfire for Charles?
Francis dattacked Charles, Pope assisted him. Clement released him from his oath on the grounds it was exorted under pressure.
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When was the Amicable Grant?
1525
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What was the Amicable Grant?
It was an attempt to raise money through a non-parliamentary tax, to declare war on France. It was very unpopular, it failed.
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When was the League of Cognac?
1526
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What was the League of Cognac?
An anti-imperial alliance, Henry was angry with Charles. England's allies could help financially with the war. Declared war 1528
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League of Cognac successful?
Wolsey couldn't fight a conventional war, so he fought a diplomatic war instead. Reward was the Treaty of Cambrai.
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What was the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529?
Agreement ending one phase of the wars between Francis I of France and the Habsburg Holy Roman emperor Charles V; it temporarily confirmed Spanish (Habsburg) hegemony in Italy
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Why was the Treaty of Cambrai a success for Wolsey?
Wolsey had managed to negotiate, England was recognised as a major power.
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Card 2

Front

When did Wolsey first gain experience?

Back

1512 by organising the English army that went to France: financing, transporting, feeding the army ETC. Impressed Henry with his correspondence with Ferdinand of Aragon.

Card 3

Front

What title was Wolsey given in 1513?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Was the expedition a success?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When Louis XII became a widower in 1514, how did Wolsey seize the opportunity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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